Conditional expressions

Conditional expressions are used by bracketed expressions and the test builtin.

Conditional expressions are often used to examine the status of a file.

-a file
True if file exists.
-b file
True if file exists and is a block special file.
-c file
True if file exists and is a character special file.
-d file
True if file exists and is a directory.
-e file
True if file exists.
-f file
True if file exists and is a regular file.
-g file
True if file exists and its set-group-id bit is set.
-h file
True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
-k file
True if file exists and its "sticky" bit is set.
-p file
True if file exists and is a named pipe (FIFO).
-r file
True if file exists and is readable.
-s file
True if file exists and has a size greater than zero.
-t fd
True if file descriptor fd is open and refers to a terminal.
-u file
True if file exists and its set-user-id bit is set.
-w file
True if file exists and is writable.
-x file
True if file exists and is executable.
-O file
True if file exists and is owned by the effective user id.
-G file
True if file exists and is owned by the effective group id.
-L file
True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
-S file
True if file exists and is a socket.
-N file
True if file exists and has been modified since it was last read.
file1 -nt file2
True if file1 is newer (according to modification date) than file2.
file1 -ot file2
True if file1 is older than file2.
file1 -ef file2
True if file1 and file2 have the same device and inode numbers.
-o optname
True if shell option optname is enabled. The list of options appears in the description of the `-o' option to set.
-z string
True if the length of string is zero.
-n string
True if the length of string is non-zero.
string1 == string2
True if the strings are equal. `=' may be used in place of `=='.
string1 != string2
True if the strings are not equal.
string1 < string2
True if string1 sorts before string2 lexicographically in the current locale.
string1 > string2
True if string1 sorts after string2 lexicographically in the current locale.
arg1 OP arg2
OP is one of `-eq', `-ne', `-lt', `-le', `-gt', or `-ge'. These arithmetic binary operators return true if arg1 is equal to, not equal to, less than, less than or equal to, greater than, or greater than or equal to arg2, respectively. Arg1 and arg2 may be positive or negative integers.

If the file argument to one of the primaries is one of:
/dev/stdin
/dev/stdout
/dev/stderr

file descriptor 0, 1, or 2, respectively, is checked.
If the file argument to one of the primaries is of the form /dev/fd/N , then file descriptor N is checked.

Related: BASH Syntax
Windows equivalent: Conditionals - IF THEN ELSE Execution


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