Change file and folder permissions - display or modify Access Control Lists (ACLs) for files and folders.
iCACLS resolves various issues that occur when using the older CACLS & XCACLS
Syntax Add or remove permissions: ICACLS Name [/grant[:r] User:Permission[...]] [/deny User:Permission[...]] [/remove[:g|:d]] User[...]] [/inheritance:e|d|r ] [/setintegritylevel Level[...]] [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] Store ACLs for one or more directories matching name into aclfile for later use with /restore: ICACLS name /save aclfile [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] Restore ACLs to all files in directory: ICACLS directory [/substitute SidOld SidNew [...]] /restore aclfile [/C] [/L] [/Q] Change Owner: ICACLS name /setowner user [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] Find items with an ACL that mentions a specific SID: ICACLS name /findsid Sid [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] Find files whose ACL is not in canonical form or with a length inconsistent with the ACE count: ICACLS name /verify [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] Replace ACL with default inherited acls for all matching files: ICACLS name /reset [/T] [/C] [/L] [/Q] This is equivalent to “Replace all child permission entries with inheritable permission from this object” in the GUI. Key name The File(s) or folder(s) the permissions will apply to. /T Traverse all subfolders to match files/directories. This will apply permission changes to all subfolders whether or not they are set to inherit permissions from the parent. On very large directory structures this may take some time as the command has to traverse the entire tree. /C Continue on file errors (access denied) Error messages are still displayed. /L Perform the operation on a symbolic link itself, not its target. /Q Quiet - supress success messages. /grant :r user:permission Grant access rights, with :r, the permissions will replace any previouly granted explicit permissions (for the given user). Otherwise the permissions are added. /deny user:permission Explicitly deny the specified user access rights. This will also remove any explicit grant of the same permissions to the same user. /remove[:[g|d]] User Remove all occurrences of User from the acl. :g remove all granted rights to that User/Sid. :d remove all denied rights to that User/Sid. /inheritance:e|d|r e - Enable inheritance d - Disable inheritance and copy the ACEs r - Remove all inherited ACEs /setintegritylevel [(CI)(OI)]Level Add an integrity ACE to all matching files. level is one of L,M,H (Low Medium or High) A Directory Inheritance option for the integrity ACE can precede the level and is applied only to directories: user A user account, Group or a SID /restore Apply the acls stored in ACLfile to the files in directory permission is a permission mask and can be specified in one of two forms: a sequence of simple rights: D - Delete access F - Full access (Edit_Permissions+Create+Delete+Read+Write) N - No access M - Modify access (Create+Delete+Read+Write) RX - Read and eXecute access R - Read-only access W - Write-only access a comma-separated list in parenthesis of specific rights: DE - Delete RC - read control WDAC - write DAC WO - write owner S - synchronize AS - access system security MA - maximum allowed GR - generic read GW - generic write GE - generic execute GA - generic all RD - read data/list directory WD - write data/add file AD - append data/add subdirectory REA - read extended attributes WEA - write extended attributes X - execute/traverse DC - delete child RA - read attributes WA - write attributes inheritance rights can precede either form and are applied only to directories: (OI) - object inherit (CI) - container inherit (IO) - inherit only (NP) - don’t propagate inherit (I) - Permission inherited from parent container
Unlike earlier command-line tools, iCACLS correctly preserves the canonical ordering of ACE entries:
Access Control Lists apply only to files stored on an NTFS formatted drive, each ACL determines which users (or groups of users) can read or edit the file. When a new file is created it normally inherits ACL's from the folder where it was created.
An access control list (ACL) is a list of access control entries (ACE). When backing up or restoring an ACL with iCACLS, you must do so for an entire directory (using /save and /restore) even if you are only interested in the ACEs for a few individual files. In practice most permissions are set at the per-directory level.
Multiple /Grant /Deny /Remove clauses can be included in a single icacls command, on a large directory tree this has the advantage that the tree only has to be traversed once, rather than multiple times if you were to issue several consecutive icacls commands instead.
Inherited folder permissions are given as:OI - Object inherit - This folder and files. (no inheritance to subfolders) CI - Container inherit - This folder and subfolders. IO - Inherit only - The ACE does not apply to the current file/directory These can also be combined as folllows: (OI)(CI) This folder, subfolders, and files. (OI)(CI)(IO) Subfolders and files only. (CI)(IO) Subfolders only. (OI) (IO) Files only.
So BUILTIN\Administrators:(OI)(CI)F means that both files and Subdirectories will inherit 'F' (Full control)
similarly (CI)R means Directories will inherit 'R' (Read folders only = List permission)
It is worth spending some time working out which permissions can be inherited and which need to be applied directly. On large/complex directory structures, minimising the number of ACLs can improve fileserver performance.
If inheritance is combined with /T (traverse subfolders) the change will apply to all folders, not just the top level.
icacls "C:\demo\example" /inheritance:e /T
Will traverse all subfolders below"C:\demo\example" and enable the inheritance for every one, this will replace any inheritance permissions that have been removed.
If no inheritance is specified, inheritance rules will not be changed but existing inherited permissions will be re-applied to existing objects in the specified location for the specified users/groups.
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant administrators:(F) /T
This is similar to applying /reset to the child items of "C:\demo\example" but only resets the administrators group.
A command which addresses a built-in group by name like ICACLS foldername /GRANT Everyone:F /T
will only work when the system language is English.
To make this language independent, use an asterisk followed by the well-known SID for the group, see Q243330 for a list.
For example, to grant full control to Everyone on a folder: ICACLS foldername /GRANT *S-1-1-0:F /T
Change the NTFS permissions on C:\DEMO, remove all existing inherited permissions and replace with Full control for the Administrators group and Change/Modify permission for jsmith.
Apply the new permissions to the folder and inherit down to subfolders and files (OI)(CI):
icacls "C:\demo\example" /inheritance:r /grant:r Administrators:(OI)(CI)F
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r Administrators:(OI)(CI)F /T
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r ss64Dom\jsmith:(OI)(CI)M /T
or you can combine grants like:
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r Administrators:(OI)(CI)F /T /grant:r ss64Dom\jsmith:(OI)(CI)M /T
View the permissions currently set on a folder:
Grant the group FileAdmins 'Delete' and 'Write DAC' permissions to C:\demo\example:
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r FileAdmins:(D,WDAC)
Reset permissions on all child items below C:\example, note the use of \*, without that, the permissions would be reset to those of C:\
icacls "C:\demo\example\*" /c /t /reset
Propagate a new permission to all files and subfolders of C:\example, without using inheritance:
(so if any of the subfolders contain specific permissions, those won't be overwritten)
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r accountName:(NP)(RX) /T
Backup the ACLs of every file in the current directory:
icacls * /save Myacl_backup.txt
Restore ACLS using a previously saved acl file:
icacls /restore Myacl_backup.txt
Change the Integrity Level (IL) of a file to High:
icacls MyReport.doc /setintegritylevel H
Remove all inheritance on the 'Demo' folder and grant access to the domain user 'Volta', in this command the /t will traverse existing subfolders and files, and the (CI) will ensure that new folders/files added in future will inherit these permissions:
icacls C:\demo\example /inheritance:r /grant SS64dom\Volta:(CI)F /t
Grant the user jdoe rights to create, edit and delete files in the folder C:\demo\example, but prevent deletion of the folder itself:
:: First remove inheritance and grant admins Full control to the top folder
icacls "C:\demo\example" /inheritance:r /grant:r administrators:(OI)(CI)(F)
:: Grant Modify + Delete Child to subfolders and files only
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r ss64Dom\jdoe:(OI)(CI)(IO)(M,DC) /T
:: Grant Read/Execute, Write and Append to the top level folder
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r ss64Dom\jdoe:(RX,WD,AD)
:: if any pre-existing subfolders Grant admins Full control
icacls "C:\demo\example" /grant:r administrators:(OI)(CI)(F) /T
The above does set the correct permissions, but an undesired bug/side effect is that within the top level folder the Windows Explorer right click option to create New files will be empty - only New Folder is shown:
“It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission” ~ Rear Admiral Grace Hopper
ATTRIB - Display or change file attributes
CACLS - Change file permissions
DIR /Q - Display the owner for a list of files (try it for Program files)
FSUTIL - File System Options
NTRIGHTS - Edit user account rights
PERMS - Show permissions for a user
TAKEOWN - Take ownership of file(s)
XCACLS - Display or modify Access Control Lists (ACLs) for files and folders
Syntax-Permissions - Explanation of permissions.
Q243330 - Well-known security identifiers (sids) in Windows operating systems
Q245031 - Change Registry Permissions (RegIni)
Q220167 - Understanding Container Access Inheritance Flags
AccessEnum - SysInternals GUI to browse a tree view of user permissions.
PowerShell equivalent: Get-Acl / Set-Acl - Set permissions
Equivalent bash command (Linux):chmod / chown - Change file permissions/owner and group