An A-Z Index of the Linux command line: bash + utilities.

  & Start a new process in the background
  alias Create an alias •
  apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
  apt Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
  apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
  aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
  aspell Spell Checker
  at Schedule a command to run once at a particular time
  awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
  basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
  base32 Base32 encode/decode data and print to standard output
  base64 Base64 encode/decode data and print to standard output
  bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
  bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
  bg Send to background
  bind Set or display readline key and function bindings •
  break Exit from a loop •
  builtin Run a shell builtin
  bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)
  cal Display a calendar
  caller Return the context of any active subroutine call •
  case Conditionally perform a command
  cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
  cd Change Directory
  cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
  chattr Change file attributes on a Linux file system
  chgrp Change group ownership
  chmod Change access permissions
  chown Change file owner and group
  chpasswd Update passwords in batch mode
  chroot Run a command with a different root directory
  chkconfig System services (runlevel)
  cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
  clear Clear the terminal screen/console (ncurses)
  clear_console Clear the terminal screen/console (bash)
  cmp Compare two files
  comm Compare two sorted files line by line
  command Run a command - ignoring shell functions •
  continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •
  cp Copy one or more files to another location
  cpio Copy files to and from archives
  cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
  crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
  csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
  curl Transfer data from or to a server
  cut Divide a file into several parts
  date Display or change the date & time
  dc Desk Calculator
  dd Data Duplicator - convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
  ddrescue Data recovery tool
  declare Declare variables and give them attributes •
  df Display free disk space
  diff Display the differences between two files
  diff3 Show differences among three files
  dig DNS lookup
  dir Briefly list directory contents
  dircolors Colour setup for 'ls'
  dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
  dirs Display list of remembered directories
  dos2unix Windows/MAC to UNIX text file format converter
  dmesg Print kernel & driver messages
  dpkg Package manager (Debian/Ubuntu).
  du Estimate file space usage
  echo Display message on screen •
  egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
  eject Eject removable media
  enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
  env Environment variables
  ethtool Ethernet card settings
  eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
  exec Execute a command
  exit Exit the shell
  expand Convert tabs to spaces
  export Set an environment variable
  expr Evaluate expressions
  false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
  fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
  fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
  fg Send job to foreground
  fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
  file Determine file type
  find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
  fmt Reformat paragraph text
  fold Wrap text to fit a specified width
  for Expand words, and execute commands
  format Format disks or tapes
  free Display memory usage
  fsck File system consistency check and repair
  ftp File Transfer Protocol
  function Define Function Macros
  fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
  gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
  getopts Parse positional parameters
  getfacl Get file access control lists
  grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
  groupadd Add a user security group
  groupdel Delete a group
  groupmod Modify a group
  groups Print group names a user is in
  gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)
  hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
  head Output the first part of file(s)
  help Display help for a built-in command •
  history Command History
  hostname Print or set system name
  htop Interactive process viewer
  iconv Convert the character set of a file
  id Print user and group id’s
  if Conditionally perform a command
  ifconfig Configure a network interface
  ifdown Stop a network interface
  ifup Start a network interface up
  import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
  install Copy files and set attributes
  iostat Report CPU and i/o statistics
  ip Routing, devices and tunnels
  jobs List active jobs •
  join Join lines on a common field
  kill Kill a process by specifying its PID
  killall Kill processes by name
  klist List cached Kerberos tickets
  less Display output one screen at a time
  let Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
  link Create a link to a file
  ln Create a symbolic link to a file
  local Create a function variable •
  locate Find files
  logname Print current login name
  logout Exit a login shell •
  look Display lines beginning with a given string
  lpc Line printer control program
  lpr Print files
  lprint Print a file
  lprintd Delete a print job
  lprintq List the print queue
  lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
  lsattr List file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
  lsblk List block devices
  ls List information about file(s)
  lsof List open files
  lspci List all PCI devices
  make Recompile a group of programs
  man Help manual
  mapfile Read lines from standard input into an indexed array variable •
  md5sum Compute and check MD5 message digest
  mkdir Create new folder(s)
  mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
  mkfile Make a file
  mkisofs Create a hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
  mknod Make block or character special files
  mktemp Make a temporary file
  more Display output one screen at a time
  most Browse or page through a text file
  mount Mount a file system
  mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
  mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
  mv Move or rename files or directories
  mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
  nc Netcat, read and write data across networks
  netstat Networking connections/stats
  nft nftables for packet filtering and classification
  nice Set the priority of a command or job
  nl Number lines and write files
  nohup Run a command immune to hangups
  notify-send Send desktop notifications
  nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
  open Open a file in its default application
  op Operator access
  passwd Modify a user password
  paste Merge lines of files
  pathchk Check file name portability
  Perf Performance analysis tools for Linux
  ping Test a network connection
  pgrep List processes by name
  pkill Kill processes by name
  popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
  pr Prepare files for printing
  printcap Printer capability database
  printenv Print environment variables
  printf Format and print data •
  ps Process status
  pushd Save and then change the current directory
  pv Monitor the progress of data through a pipe
  pwd Print Working Directory
  quota Display disk usage and limits
  quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
  ram ram disk device
  rar Archive files with compression
  rcp Copy files between two machines
  read Read a line from standard input •
  readarray Read from stdin into an array variable •
  readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
  reboot Reboot the system
  rename Rename files
  renice Alter priority of running processes
  remsync Synchronize remote files via email
  return Exit a shell function
  rev Reverse lines of a file
  rm Remove files
  rmdir Remove folder(s)
  rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
  screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
  scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
  sdiff Merge two files interactively
  sed Stream Editor
  select Accept user choices via keyboard input
  seq Print numeric sequences
  set Manipulate shell variables and functions
  setfacl Set file access control lists.
  sftp Secure File Transfer Program
  sha256sum Compute and check SHA256 (256-bit) checksums
  shift Shift positional parameters
  shopt Shell Options
  shuf Generate random permutations
  shutdown Shutdown or restart Linux
  sleep Delay for a specified time
  slocate Find files
  sort Sort text files
  source Run commands from a file '.'  •
  split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
  ss Socket Statistics
  ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
  stat Display file or file system status
  strace Trace system calls and signals
  su Substitute user identity
  sudo Execute a command as another user
  sum Print a checksum for a file
  suspend Suspend execution of this shell •
  sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
  tabs Set tabs on a terminal
  tail Output the last part of a file
  tar Store, list or extract files in an archive
  tee Redirect output to multiple files
  test Evaluate a conditional expression
  time Measure Program running time
  timeout Run a command with a time limit
  times User and system times
  tmux Terminal multiplexer
  touch Change file timestamps
  top List processes running on the system
  tput Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position
  traceroute Trace Route to Host
  trap Execute a command when the shell receives a signal •
  tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
  true Do nothing, successfully
  tsort Topological sort
  tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
  type Describe a command •
  ulimit Limit user resources •
  umask Users file creation mask
  umount Unmount a device
  unalias Remove an alias •
  uname Print system information
  unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
  uniq Uniquify files
  units Convert units from one scale to another
  unix2dos UNIX to Windows or MAC text file format converter
  unrar Extract files from a rar archive
  unset Remove variable or function names
  unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
  until Execute commands (until error)
  uptime Show uptime
  useradd Create new user account
  userdel Delete a user account
  usermod Modify user account
  users List users currently logged in
  uuencode Encode a binary file
  uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
  v Verbosely list directory contents ('ls -l -b')
  vdir Verbosely list directory contents ('ls -l -b')
  vi Text Editor
  vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
  w Show who is logged on and what they are doing
  wait Wait for a process to complete •
  watch Execute/display a program periodically
  wc Print byte, word, and line counts
  whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
  which Search the user’s $path for a program file
  while Execute commands
  who Print all usernames currently logged in
  whoami Print the current user id and name ('id -un')
  wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
  write Send a message to another user
  xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
  xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application.
  xxd Make a hexdump or do the reverse
  xz Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
  yes Print a string until interrupted
  zip Package and compress (archive) files
  . Run a command script in the current shell
  !! Run the last command again
  ### Comment / Remark

To scroll this page, press [ a – z ] on the keyboard, also on the detail pages 's' = syntax 'e' = examples, '\' = Search.

Commands marked • are bash built-ins
The other commands and Core Utils are also available under alternate shells (C shell, Korn shell etc).

More bash commands: man7 &, GNU CoreUtils.
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