rsync

Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

FULL LIST OF OPTIONS

rsync uses the GNU long options package.
Many of the command line options have two variants, one short and one long. These are shown below, separated by commas.
Some options only have a long variant. The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be used instead.

-h, --help
    Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync

--version
    print the rsync version number and exit

-v, --verbose
    This option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer. 
    By default, rsync works silently. 
    A single -v will give you information about what files are being transferred 
    and a brief summary at the end. 
    Two -v flags will give you information on what files are being skipped and
    slightly more information at the end.
    More than two -v flags should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

--info=FLAGS
    This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want to see.
    An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
    output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that
    flag (for those that support higher levels). Use --info=help to see all the available flag
    names, what they output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the verbose level.
    Some examples:

        rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
        rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/ 

    Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format and --itemize-changes (-i) options.
    See those options for more information on what is output and when.

    This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject your attempts
    at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
    too old to understand them). See also the "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon. 

--debug=FLAGS
    This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output you want to see.
    An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output,
    1 being the default output level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
    that support higher levels). Use --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,
    and what flag names are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:

        rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
        rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/ 

    Note that some debug messages will only be output when --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those
    pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

    This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject your attempts at
    fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was too old
    to understand them). See also the "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--msgs2stderr
    This option changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather than to send messages
    to the client side via the protocol (which normally outputs info messages via stdout). This is mainly
    intended for debugging in order to avoid changing the data sent via the protocol, since the extra
    protocol data can change what is being tested. The option does not affect the remote side of a
    transfer without using --remote-option -- e.g. -M--msgs2stderr.
    Also keep in mind that a daemon connection does not have a stderr channel to send messages back
    to the client side, so if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using this option, you should
    start up a daemon using --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the daemon side.

    This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered so that the merging of the
    output of 3 programs happens in a more readable manner. 

-q, --quiet
    This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer,
    notably suppressing information messages from the remote server.
    This flag is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
    This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of a daemon transfer.
    This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules that
    the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol),
    so omit this option if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon. 

-I, --ignore-times
    Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same length and have the same 
    time-stamp. This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be updated. 

--size-only
    Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same length and 
    have the same time-stamp.
    With the --size-only option files will be skipped if they have the same size,
    regardless of timestamp. This is useful when starting to use rsync after
    using another mirroring system which can not preserve timestamps exactly.

-@, --modify-window
    When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they differ by
    no more than the modify-window value. The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.
    If you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds
    will also be taken into account. Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT
    filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second resolution
    (allowing times to differ from the original by up to 1 second).

    If you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file
    and put these lines in it:

      rsync alias -a -a@-1

      rsync alias -t -t@-1

    With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-window=0 (aka -@0) to override it
    and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving
    rsync is older than 3.1.3. 

-c, --checksum
    This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of a transfer.
    Without this option, rsync uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size
    and time of last modification match between the sender and receiver. This option changes this
    to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a matching size. Generating the checksums
    means that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer
    (and this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this can slow
    things down significantly.

    The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system scan that builds the
    list of the available files. The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for changed
    files, and will checksum any file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file:
    files with either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

    Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was correctly reconstructed on the
    receiving side by checking a whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred,
    but that automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this option's
    before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

    For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is MD5.
    For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4. 

-a, --archive
    This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
    want to preserve almost everything.

    Note however that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked
    files is expensive. You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
    You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the option name with "no-".
    Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied by other options
    (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances
    (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs). You may specify either the short or
    the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

    For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead of
    converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

    The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option would end
    up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r. Note also that the side-effects of the
    --files-from option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of several options
    and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the --files-from option for more details). 

-r, --recursive
    This tells rsync to copy directories recursively. See also --dirs (-d).

    Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan that
    uses much less memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning of the first
    few directories have been completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm,
    and does not change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when both ends of the
    transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

    Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the incremental
    recursion mode. These include: --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and
    --delay-updates. Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify --delete is now
    --delete-during when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
    request this improved deletion mode explicitly). See also the --delete-delay option that is a
    better choice than using --delete-after.

    Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias. 

-R, --relative
    Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent
    to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when
    you want to send several different directories at the same time. For example, if you used this command:

      rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead you used

      rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

    then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote machine, preserving its full path.
    These extra path elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar"
    directories in the above example).

    Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real directories in
    the file list, even if a path element is really a symlink on the sending side. This prevents some
    really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had a
    symlink in its path. If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the symlink
    via its path, and referent directory via its real path. If you're dealing with an older rsync on
    the sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

    It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied directories
    for each path you specify. With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7),
    you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

      rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

    That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the dot must be followed
    by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need
    to use a chdir to limit the source path. For example, when pushing files:

      (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/) 

    (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd" command doesn't
    remain in effect for future commands.)
    If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

    rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
    remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/ 

--no-implied-dirs
    This option affects the default behavior of the --relative option. When it is specified,
    the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are not included in the transfer.
    This means that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are left unchanged
    if they exist, and any missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
    This even allows these implied path elements to have big differences, such as being a
    symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

    For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer the file
    "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.
    If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would
    ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into the new
    directory. With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the
    existing path elements, which means that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".
    Another way to accomplish this link preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option
    (which will also affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).

    When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option if the
    sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the implied directories
    to be transferred as normal directories. 

-b, --backup
    With this option preexisting destination files are renamed with a ~ extension as each file is transferred.
    You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
    the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

    Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will be forced on,
    and (2) if --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
    filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").
    This will prevent previously backed-up files from being deleted.
    Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may need to manually insert your own
    exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be
    effective (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached). 

--backup-dir=DIR
    In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory.
    This is very useful for incremental backups. You can additionally specify a backup suffix using
    the --suffix option (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original filenames).

    Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to the destination directory,
    so you probably want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../".
    If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy,
    so take extra care not to delete it or copy into it. 

--suffix=SUFFIX
    This option allows you to override the default backup suffix
    used with the -b option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string. 

-u, --update
    This forces rsync to skip any files for which the destination file already
    exists and has a date later than the source file. (If an existing destination file has a
    modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)

    Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or other special files.
    Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always considered to
    be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.
    In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a file, the transfer
    would occur regardless of the timestamps.

    This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that goes into the file-lists,
    and thus it doesn't affect deletions. It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred. 

--inplace
    This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated:
    instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into place when
    it is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the destination file.

    This has several effects:

       Hard links are not broken. This means the new data will be visible through other hard links to the destination file.
       Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
       "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.
       In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
       swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).
       The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer
       is interrupted or if an update fails.
       A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user can update any file, a normal user needs
       to be granted write permission for the open of the file for writing to be successful.
       The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some data in the destination file is
       overwritten before it can be copied to a position later in the file.
       This does not apply if you use --backup, since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the transfer. 

    WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by others,
    so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

    This option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes or appended data, and also on systems
    that are disk bound, not network bound. It can also help keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging
    the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.

    The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does not delete the file), but conflicts with
    --partial-dir and --delay-updates. Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and
    --link-dest. 

--append
    This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the end of the file, which presumes that the data that
    already exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the sending side.
    If a file needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender,
    the file is skipped. This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes
    (e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be transferred, nor does it affect the updating
    of any non-regular files. Implies --inplace.

    The use of --append can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that the files that are longer have only grown by
    the appending of data onto the end. You should thus use include/exclude/filter rules to ensure that such a
    transfer is only affecting files that you know to be growing via appended data. 

--append-verify
    This works just like the --append option, but the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file
    checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the final verification step fails
    (rsync uses a normal, non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

    Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if you are interacting with
    an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option will
    initiate an --append-verify transfer.

-d, --dirs
    Tell the sending side to include any directories that are encountered. Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents
    are not copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).
    Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and output a
    message to that effect for each one). If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

    The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage)
    if --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in the listing). Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) 
    if you want to turn this off.

    There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack
    of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing. 

-l, --links
    When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

-L, --copy-links
    When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.
    In older versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the receiving side to
    follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories. In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
    specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.
    The only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case,
    the -L option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync. 

--copy-unsafe-links
    This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside the copied tree.
    Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path
    itself when --relative is used. This option has no additional effect if --copy-links was also specified. 

--safe-links
    This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the
    destination tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
    Using this option in conjunction with --relative can give unexpected results.

--munge-links
    This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in a way that makes them unusable
    but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in a munged state.
    This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.

    The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".
    This prevents the links from being used as long as that directory does not exist.
    When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

    The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to affect the server,
    specify it via --remote-option. (Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the sender.)

    This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants munged symlinks via
    its "munge symlinks" parameter. See also the "munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.

-k, --copy-dirlinks
    This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory.
    This is useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

    Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to a directory, the
    receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy
    (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

    See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

    --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If you want to follow only a
    few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash,
    using --relative to make the paths match up right. For example:

        rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

    This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2)
    follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the symlink found
    during the scan of "src/./".

-K, --keep-dirlinks
    This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory,
    but only if it matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the receiver's symlink would
    be deleted and replaced with a real directory.

    For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink
    to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates
    it as a directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps
    the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

    One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in the copy! If it is
    possible for an untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then
    (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the content of whatever
    directory the symlink references. For backup copies, you are better off using something like a bind
    mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

    See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side. 

-H, --hard-links
    This tells rsync to recreate hard links on the remote system to be the same
    as the local system. Without this option hard links are treated like regular files.

    This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the destination exactly matches
    that on the source. Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:

       If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is present in the source file list),
       the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content
       differences, the normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).
       If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking of the destination files
       against the --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination to become linked together due
       to the --link-dest associations. 

    Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the transfer set.
    If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will
    be broken. If you are tempted to use the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know
    how your files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard
    links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

    If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it
    finds that another link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy
    of the transfer (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the data for a new,
    early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked
    set of files). One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option. 



-p, --perms
    This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions.
    (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

    When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

       Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions, though the --executability
       option might change just the execute permission for the file.
       New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's permissions masked with the receiving
       directory's default permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
       destination directory's default ACL), and their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a
       new directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory. 

    Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy
    utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

    In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions, use --perms. To give new files
    the destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is
    off and use --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this
    latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this line in the
    file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

      rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

    You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

      rsync -avZ src/ dest/

    (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

    The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories when --perms is off was added
    in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created
    files when --perms was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory.
    Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the
    umask even if default ACLs are present. (Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.) 

-E, --executability
    This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of regular files when --perms is
    not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.
    When an existing destination file's executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync modifies
    the destination file's permissions as follows:

            To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.
            To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled. 

    If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

-A, --acls
    This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs. The option also implies --perms.

    The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option to work properly.
    See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compatible.

-X, --xattrs
    This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.

    For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a super-user copies all namespaces
    except system.*. A normal user only copies the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user
    namespaces as a normal user, see the --fake-super option.

    The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with the x modifier.
    When you specify an xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own system/user filtering,
    as well as any additional filtering for what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.
    For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

        --filter='-x system.*'

    To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a negated-user match:

        --filter='-x! user.*'

    To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

        --filter='-xr *'

    Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr values (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless
    you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

--chmod
    This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in
    the transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that the sending side supplied
    for the file, which means that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not enabled.

    In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should
    only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a file by
    prefixing it with a 'F'. For example, the following will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid, that
    no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
    executability across all bits:

        --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

    Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

        --chmod=D2775,F664

    It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.

    See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer. 

-o, --owner
    This option causes rsync to preserve the owner of the destination file - the same as the source file,
    but only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).
    Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

    The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
    some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion). 

-g, --group
    This option causes rsync to preserve the group of the destination file - the same as the source file.
    If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified), only groups that the
    invoking user on the receiving side is a member of will be preserved. Without this option, the group is set to the
    default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

    The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to using the
    ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion). 

--devices
    This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
    This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

--specials
    This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

-D
    The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials. 

-t, --times
    This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the remote system.
    Note that if this option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been modified cannot
    be effective; in other words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
    causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
    if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t). 

-O, --omit-dir-times
    This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see --times).
    If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
    This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

    This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of directories in incremental recursion copies.
    The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an early-create pass of all the sub-directories in a parent
    directory in order for it to be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away
    (without having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying has finished). This early-create idiom is not
    necessary if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it is skipped. Since early-create directories
    don't have accurate mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when someone wants to avoid
    these partially-finished directories.

-J, --omit-link-times
    This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modification times (see --times).

--super
    This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by
    the super-user. These activities include: preserving users via the --owner option, preserving all groups
    (not just the current user's groups) via the --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices option.
    This is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that
    you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities,
    the super-user can use --no-super.

--fake-super
    When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes
    via special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This includes the file's owner and
    group (if it is not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created as empty text files),
    and any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety)
    or that would limit the owner's access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the files we
    create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user). This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
    and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

    This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

    The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used. To affect the remote side of a remote-shell
    connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

        rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

    For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination. If you wish a local copy to enable this
    option just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super. If you wish a local copy to enable this option just
    for the source files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

    This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

    See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.

-S, --sparse
    Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destination. If combined with --inplace the
    file created might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.
    If --whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because rsync truncates the file prior
    to writing out the updated version.

    Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the combination of --sparse and --inplace.

-S, --sparse
    Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destination. If combined with --inplace
    the file created might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.
    If --whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because rsync truncates the file
    prior to writing out the updated version.

    Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the combination of --sparse and --inplace. 

--preallocate
    This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its eventual size before writing data to the file.
    Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by Linux's fallocate(2) system call
    or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into each block.

    Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem, but with this option rsync
    will probably copy more slowly. If the destination is not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs,
    NTFS, etc.), this option may have no positive effect at all.

    If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks (as opposed to allocated sequences of null
    bytes) if the kernel version and filesystem type support creating holes in the allocated data. 

-n, --dry-run
    This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).
    It is most commonly used in combination with the -v, --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what
    an rsync command is going to do before one actually runs it.

    The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and a subsequent real run
    (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly
    unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers,
    so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are
    too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run where no file transfers were needed. 

-W, --whole-file
    This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred files to be sent whole.
    The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and destination machines
    is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).
    This is the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
    batch-writing option is in effect. 

--checksum-choice=STR
    This option overrides the checksum algoriths. If one algorithm name is specified, it is used for both the
    transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum is specifed) the pre-transfer checksumming. If two comma-separated
    names are supplied, the first name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the pre-transfer checksumming.

    The algorithm choices are "auto", "md4", "md5", and "none". If "none" is specified for the first name, the
    --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is performed on the transferred data. If "none" is
    specified for the second name, the --checksum option cannot be used. The "auto" option is the default, where rsync
    bases its algorithm choice on the protocol version (for backward compatibility with older rsync versions).

-x, --one-file-system
    This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability to
    specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each directory
    that the user specified, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep in mind
    that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the same filesystem.

    If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty
    directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the
    underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

    If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on
    another device is treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
    This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist yet on the destination. If this
    option is combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all you want
    to do is delete extraneous files).

    This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that goes into the file-lists,
    and thus it doesn't affect deletions. It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--ignore-existing
    This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this does not ignore existing
    directories, or nothing would get done). See also --existing.

    This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that goes into the file-lists,
    and thus it doesn't affect deletions. It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

    This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup
    run that got interrupted. Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly),
    using --ignore existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in
    permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option is only looking at the existing files
    in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
    This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer
    and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

    Note that you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent. If you are using this to move files
    that show up in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that the finished files get renamed into the
    source directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer a file that is not yet fully written.
    If you can't first write the files into a different directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid
    transferring files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it is written, rename it to "foo"
    when it is done, and then use the option --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

    Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error) if the file's size or modify
    time has not stayed unchanged. 

--delete
    This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side),
    but only for the directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory
    (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is
    expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent directory.
    Files that are excluded from the transfer are also excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
    option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

    Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless --recursive was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions
    will also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

    This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)
    to see what files are going to be deleted.

    If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.
    This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive deletion
    of files on the destination. You can override this with the --ignore-errors option.

    The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.
    However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when
    talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older rsync.
    See also --delete-delay and --delete-after. 

--delete-before
    Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer starts. See --delete (which is implied)
    for more details on file-deletion.

    Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to
    make the transfer possible. However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might
    cause the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
    algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
    Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens.
    The per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more
    efficient --delete-before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being updated.
    This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4. See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
    Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the transfer (like --delete-during),
    and then removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and
    is more efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently, since --delete-after computes the deletions
    in a separate pass after all updates are done). If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary
    file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during
    the transfer). If the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after
    (which it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).
    See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
    Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer has completed.
    This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and you want their
    exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old,
    non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at
    once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion. 

--delete-excluded
    In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on
    the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on the receiving side
    that are excluded (see --exclude).

--ignore-missing-args
    When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source files
    (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found.
    This option suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not affect subsequent
    vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
    This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step farther: each missing
    arg will become a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side (should it
    exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if --force or
    --delete are in effect. Other than that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing.

    The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output. 

--ignore-errors
    Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are IO errors.

--force
    This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced by a non-directory.
    This is only relevant if deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

    Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required when using --delete-after, and it used
    to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was also enabled. 

--max-delete=NUM
    This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, all further
    deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer. At the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a
    count of the skipped deletions) and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
    condition also occurred).

    Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any extraneous files in
    the destination without removing any of them. Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't
    know what version the client is, you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible way
    to specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
    This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be
    suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

    This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that goes into the file-lists,
    and thus it doesn't affect deletions. It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

    The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), 
    and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024). If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use
    "KB", "MB", or "GB". (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.) Finally, if the suffix ends in either
    "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

    Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

    Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
    This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in
    not transferring small, junk files. See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE and other information.

    Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0. 

-B , --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
    This controls the block size used in the rsync algorithm.
    See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
    This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for communication between the local
    and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use
    rsh on a local network.

    If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an
    rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote shell connection, rather
    than through a direct socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the section
    "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.

    Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.
    You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other, and you can
    use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).
    Note that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes
    (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).
    Some examples:

    -e 'ssh -p 2234'
    -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

    (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

    You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the same
    range of values as -e.

    See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option. 

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
    Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up rsync.
    Often used when rsync is not in the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).
    Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence
    you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

    One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote machine for use with the --relative option.
    For instance:

    rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

-M, --remote-option=OPTION
    This option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the
    transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system,
    specify it like this:

        rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

    If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it normally affects both sides,
    send its negation to the remote side. Like this:

        rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

    Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync to have a different idea about
    what data to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

    Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want to pass. This makes your useage
    compatible with the --protect-args option. If that option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split
    by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.

    When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote" side is the receiver.

    Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that prevents you from using an adjacent
    arg with an equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your
    version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

-C, --cvs-exclude
    This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between systems.
    It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

    The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items are marked as perishable
     -- see the FILTER RULES section):

            RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
            *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

    then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment
    variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

    Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns
    listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
    See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

    If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the
    end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower priority
    than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your
    filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C
    (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
    The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time
    import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

-f, --filter=RULE
    This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred.
    This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

    You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.
    If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.
    The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.

    See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

-F
    The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.
    The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

        --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

    This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and
    use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

        --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

    This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

    See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. 

--exclude=PATTERN
    This option allows you to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred.
    This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not
    allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. 

    You can use as many --exclude options on the command line as you like to
    build up the list of files to exclude.

    See the section on exclude patterns for information on the syntax of this option.

--exclude-from=FILE
    This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).
    Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
    If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. 

--include=PATTERN
    This option tells rsync to not exclude the specified pattern of filenames.
    This is useful as it allows you to build up quite complex exclude/include rules.

    See the section of exclude patterns for information on the syntax of this option.

--include-from=FILE
    This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).
    Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
    If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.

--files-from=FILE
    Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or
    - for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files
    and directories easier:

         The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item
         in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off).
         The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather
         than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).
         The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.
         These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line
         has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R
         and all other options). 

    The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and
    no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command:

        rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

    If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the
    remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be
    sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the
    -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be
    specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default)
    --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the
    source-spec path (/usr in this case).

    In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a
    "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix
    of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer".
    For example:

        rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

    This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host.

    If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host
    to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

    NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting
    the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements
    (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they
    get turned into file-list elements. 

-0, --from0
    This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a
    NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in
    a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

-s, --protect-args
    This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.
    This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated
    (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.). Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).

    If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also be translated from the local to
    the remote character-set. The translation happens before wild-cards are expanded. See also the --files-from option.

    You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable. If this variable has a non-zero value,
    this option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is overridden by a
    manually specified positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).
    Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact
    with a remote rsync that is older than that.

    Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default (with is overridden by both the
    environment and the command-line). This option will eventually become a new default setting at some as-yet-undetermined
    point in the future.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
    This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred
    on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated
    destination file. Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with
    an extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added).

    This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of
    the largest file in the transfer. In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition),
    rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but
    instead must copy it into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means
    that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if the
    destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then
    renamed into place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open),
    and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time.

    If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the
    --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination
    hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on
    the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the
    --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file
    in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the
    copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does
    not have this side-effect.)

-y, --fuzzy
    This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing.
    The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has an identical
    size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.

    If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination directories that
    are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

    Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use
    --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
    This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
    files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory). If a file is found in DIR that
    is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory. This is useful for
    creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup. This option is typically used to
    copy into an empty (or newly created) directory.

    Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
    the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local
    copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected
    to try to speed up the transfer.

    If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

    NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact
    match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
    This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination
    directory using a local copy. This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files
    intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

    Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
    for an unchanged file. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to
    speed up the transfer.

    If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

--link-dest=DIR
    This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.
    The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the
    files to be linked together. An example:

        rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

    If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside
    of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with
    generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

    Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
    the list in the order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such directories). 
    If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.
    If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

    This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their
    attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of
    changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
    never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists.

    Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it
    only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check
    after the file is updated.

    If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

    Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a
    non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a). You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option
    when sending to an old rsync.

-z, --compress
    With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the
    amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

    Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing
    remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching
    data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection. This matching-data compression comes at a cost of
    CPU, though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least version 3.1.1.

    Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged
    with rsync) then it will not support the old-style compression, only the new-style (repeated-option) compression.
    In the future this new-style compression will likely become the default.

    The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server via the --new-compress option, so if you see that
    option rejected it means that the server is not new enough to support -zz. Rsync also accepts the --old-compress
    option for a future time when new-style compression becomes the default.

    See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. 

--compress-level=NUM
    Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it default.
    If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

--skip-compress=LIST
    Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes
    (without the dot) separated by slashes (/).

    You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

    Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square
    brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

    The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

    Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

        --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

    The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync):

    7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

    This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will
    add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). 

--numeric-ids
    With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user ids rather than using user and group names and
    mapping them at both ends.

    By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give files.
    The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is
    not specified. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system,
    then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in
    the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the
    users and groups and what you can do about it. 

--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
    These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side.
    The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender
    is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values,
    and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards
    do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a
    range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example:

      --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

    The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single
     --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

    Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either
    match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root").
    All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side.

    Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching.
    This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance:

      --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

    When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having
    an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless
    IDs to different values.

    For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver
    will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option). For the --groupmap option to have any
    effect, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group.

--chown=USER:GROUP
    This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP.
    This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those
    options internally, so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted
    user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty,
    a leading colon must be supplied.

    If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
    As with --usermap, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied)
    As with --groupmap, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied)

--timeout=TIMEOUT
    This option allows you to set a maximum IO timeout in seconds.
    If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit.
    The default is 0, which means no timeout.

-contimeout
    This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
    If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

--address
    By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon.
    The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
    See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

--port=PORT
    This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.
    This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon
    (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL).
    See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

--sockopts
    This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree.
    You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).
    Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set.
    By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon.
    This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

--blocking-io
    This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.
    If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O,
    otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
    This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).
    You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case.

    The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

-i, --itemize-changes
    Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.
    This is exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will
    also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync,
    but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages).

    The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,
    where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters
    represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified.

    The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

            A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).
            A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).
            A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or
                the changing of a symlink, etc.).
            A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links).
            A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified).
            A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting"). 

    The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device,
    and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

    The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the associated attribute for
    the item is being updated or a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces
    each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces
    each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).

    The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

            A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1,
                this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.
            A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer.
            A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --times).
                An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
                when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't
                set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of
                the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.)
            A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).
            An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and
                 super-user privileges).
            A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to set the group).
            The u slot is reserved for future use.
            The a means that the ACL information changed.
            The x means that the extended attribute information changed. 

    One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that
    is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting
    them as a verbose message).

--out-format=FORMAT
    This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis.
    The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.
    A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and,
    if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in
    the rsyncd.conf manpage.

    Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated
    in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the
    itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of
    names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
    See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

    Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is
    requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging is in effect
    and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress
    information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

--log-file=FILE
    This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,
    but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer. If specified as a client
    option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".
    See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

    Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

      rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

    This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
    This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option
    (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files
    will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
    in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

    The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'.

--stats
    This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's
    delta-transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options,
    or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

    The current statistics are as follows:

          Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.
            The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
            For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories,
            symlinks, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list.
          Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).
            The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
          Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).
          The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
            Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used
            (the default for rsync 3.1.x).
          Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm,
            which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading.
          Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for
            directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.
          Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files.
          Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.
          Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files.
          File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver.
            This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.
          File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list.
            This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.
          File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.
          Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side.
          Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side.
           "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us,
            which makes the stats more consistent. 

-8, --8-bit-output
    This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them
    to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs)
    are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting.

    The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly
    3 octal digits. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
    escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

-h, --human-readable
    Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator
    between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a
    period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below);
    (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

    The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one.
    You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option.

    The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera).
    For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

    Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1, and they default
    to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as
    long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list-only option for one difference.

--partial
    By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances
    it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial
    file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
    A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the
    partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file). On the next transfer, rsync will use a file
    found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose.

    Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being
    updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

    Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path).
    This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the
    partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the
    partial file is deleted.

    If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your
    existing excludes. This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side,
    and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side.
    An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
    the end of any other filter rules.

    If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for
    the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you
    may wish to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over
    partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule,
    e.g. -f 'R .rsync-partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to
    use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

    IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

    You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the
    environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial
    is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set
    RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of
    the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this
    environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and
    (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

    For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.
    This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination
    files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

--delay-updates
    This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of
    the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.
    This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed
    into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
    --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section
    for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if
    you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around. Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

    This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires
    enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files.
    Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance
    of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into
    a single directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy
    (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).

    See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even
    more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

-m, --prune-empty-dirs
    This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including
    nested directories that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a
    bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
    include/exclude/filter rules.

    Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the file list,
    and thus does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

    Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a
    delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from
    being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files.
    See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

    You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.
    For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

        --filter 'protect emptydir/'

    Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination
    directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the destination
    are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

        rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

    If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of
    "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).

--progress
    This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer.
    This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress,
    but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").

    While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this:

          782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

    In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being
    reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the
    current rate is maintained until the end.

    These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use. 
    For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
    will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably
    take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

    When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this:

          1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

    In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole
    file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer
    of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check
    (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

    In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list until it
    reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a
    line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that
    it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk"
    lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does,
    the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list).

-P
    The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress. Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these
    two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

    There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than
    individual files. Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if
    you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need
    to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

--password-file=FILE
    This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input
    if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored).
    Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

    This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
    consult the remote shell's documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport,
    this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also
    specified a password in the daemon's config file).

--list-only
    This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there
    is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes
    a destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source arg (note: be sure
    to include the destination). Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into
    multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

        rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

    Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option.
    By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with
    unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for
    all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

    Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older,
    you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies
    the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option. To avoid this problem,
    either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion
    and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
    This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units
    per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
    value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m"). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes
    (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes.
    A value of zero specifies no limit.

    For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller
    than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

    Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync
    writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen
    where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

    Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how
    fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is
    quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.
    This may be fixed in a future version.

--write-batch=FILE
    Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch.
    See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

--only-write-batch=FILE
    Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch.
    This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

    Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to
    capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and
    repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination
    system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

    Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched
    data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver
    (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

--read-batch=FILE
    Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch.
    If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

--protocol=NUM
    Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with
    an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but
    rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating
    the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade
    the rsync on the reading system).

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
    Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync
    to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what
    conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the
    order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. 
    This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files.
    Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
    The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

    For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list".

    If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the
    command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option.

    Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files).
    It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.
    For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides
    that need to be accounted for.

    When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in
    its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel
    free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
    Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct control
    over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
    See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

    If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect.
    The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

--checksum-seed=NUM
    Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file
    checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed). By default the checksum seed
    is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() . This option is used to set a specific checksum
    seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user
    wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS

The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
    This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync
    client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

    If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach
    from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on
    each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

--address
    By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option.
    The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
    This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the "address"
    global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

--bwlimit=RATE
    This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket.
    The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed.
    See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

--config=FILE
    This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only relevant when --daemon is specified.
    The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user
    is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
    This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode.
    It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's
    definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance:

        rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid 

--no-detach
    When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process.
    This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is
    supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller. --no-detach is
    also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
    This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873.
    See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
    This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting
    in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
    This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format"
    setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which
    case transfer logging is turned off.

--sockopts
    This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.

-v, --verbose
    This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase.
    After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
    used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
    Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
    listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an
    IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port,
    try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

    If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect.
    The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

-h, --help
    When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon. 

Exit Values

0  Success
1  Syntax or usage error
2  Protocol incompatibility
3  Errors selecting input/output files, dirs
4  Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them;
     or an option was specified that is supported by the client and not by the server.
5  Error starting client-server protocol
6  Daemon unable to append to log-file
10 Error in socket I/O
11 Error in file I/O
12 Error in rsync protocol data stream
13 Errors with program diagnostics
14 Error in IPC code
20 Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT
21 Some error returned by waitpid()
22 Error allocating core memory buffers
23 Partial transfer due to error
24 Partial transfer due to vanished source files
25 The --max-delete limit stopped deletions
30 Timeout in data send/receive
35 Timeout waiting for daemon connection 

Download latest version (plus docs)
rsync.samba.org

"I can understand there are things like shadows they need to fix after a shoot, but it's unfair to represent an image of yourself if it's not true. They're gonna see what you look like on film anyway, so why try to cover all your wobbly bits in a photo?" ~ Emily Blunt

Related:

rsyncd.conf(5)
cp - Copy one or more files to another location
install - Copy files and set attributes
dd - Data Dump - convert and copy a file (use for RAW storage)
remsync - Synchronize remote files via email
Equivalent Windows command: ROBOCOPY - Robust File and Folder Copy


Copyright © SS64.com 1999-2018
Some rights reserved