Package and compress (archive) files.

      zip [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...] [-b path] [-n suffixes]
         [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]] [-xi list]

Basic Examples:

Zip the file demo.txt on the desktop to
$ zip ~/Desktop/demo.txt

Zip the contents of the folder ~/work including subfolders and system files:
$ cd ~
$ zip -r work

Zip the contents of the folder ~/work including subfolders but excluding any system files that start with a period or double underscore:
$ cd ~
$ zip -r work -x ".*" -x "__*"

This will ensure that no additional files are seen if the zip is extracted on a non-Apple PC.

              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting executable archive is created by
              prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. The -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
              offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data.

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use  the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                 zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,  copying  over  to
              the  current directory when done. This option is useful when updating an existing
              archive and the  file system containing this old archive does not have enough space
              to hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may also be useful when
              streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data descriptors.
              Note that using this option may require zip take additional time to copy the
              archive file when done to the destination file system.

              Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating) are done first, and the
              user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
              return, or just return for no comment.

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o
              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start with foo/harry/, and all of the
              files that end with .o (in any path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with
              backslashes, so that zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip
              archive instead of the contents of the current directory.  (The backslashes are not used on
              MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the shell expands wildcards could result in the
              asterisks being converted to a list of files in the current directory and that list used to
              delete entries from the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive.  This requires that
              file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We
              considered making this case insensitive on systems where paths were case insensitive, but it is
              possible the archive came from a system where case does matter and the archive could include both
              Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the new option -ic to ignore case in the
              Display  running  byte  counts  showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display dots while each entry is zipped (except on ports that have their own progress indicator).
              See -ds below for setting dot size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB of input file processed.
              The -v option also displays dots (previously at a much higher rate than this but now -v also
              defaults to 10 MB) and this rate is also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.  Good for exporting files to
              foreign operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

              Display  progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.
              The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See -dd to enable displaying dots.
              Setting this option implies -dd.  Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is a
              multiplier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k,
              size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also controlled by
              this option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip scans for input
              files.  The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read  from,
              if reading an existing archive, and being written to.

              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.  Directory entries are created by
              default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment variable
              ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new option format
              detailed below, and can include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
              the latter previously could not be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable as the
              contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted near the beginning of the command line and the file list had to
              end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.

              Create an archive that contains all new and changed files since the original archive was created.
              For this to work, the input file list and current directory must be the same as during the
              original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files not in foofull and the
              files where the size or file time of the files do not match those in foofull.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in
              order for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive was
              created could result in no times matching and all files being included.

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a normal archive of the contents
              of the directory as a full backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in
              response to a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will exit with
              an error).  The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors.

              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently
              than the version already in the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run,
              since paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in
              order for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-
              format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and
              the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is 'MET-1MEST' (Middle European time with
              automatic adjustment for 'summertime' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET, hh is the difference between GMT
              and local time such as -1 above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
              effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone

              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing, but
              requires a reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive is scanned as usual, but zip
              will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should be valid, but any inconsistent entries
              will be left out.

              When doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for special
              signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. The single -F is more reliable if
              the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option first.

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you must use -FF.  This is a change
              from zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F option now more
              reliably fixes archives with minor damage and the -FF option is needed to fix archives where -F
              might have been sufficient before.

              Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead
              of binary. After the repair, the -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. Such
              files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded zip archive that was
              stored (without compression) in the archive and, depending on the damage, it may find the entries
              in the embedded archive rather than the archive itself.  Try -F first as it does not have this

              The  format  of  the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged archive,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to the new archive  If this
              doesn't work, as when the archive is truncated, or if some entries you know are in the archive
              are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may create an
              inconsistent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the -F option to fix that

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last split of the
              archive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which
              will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad checksum or are otherwise

       --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can hang if the
              FIFO is not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an archive is
              updated, new files are added and changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on the
              OS are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new mode that checks entries in the
              archive against the file system.  If the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the
              OS file, the entry is copied from the old archive instead of being read from the file system and
              compressed.  If the OS file has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If the entry
              in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry is deleted.  Enabling this option
              should create archives that are the same as new archives, but since existing entries are copied
              instead of compressed, updating an existing archive with -FS can be much faster than creating a
              new archive.  Also consider using -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same directory it was created in
              so the relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the old archive, it may be
              faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in
              order for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive was
              created could result in no times matching and recompression of all files.

              This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to preserve the original archive, make a
              copy of the archive first or use the --out option to output the updated archive to a new file.
              Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with a new archive name is safer, avoids
              mismatches between archive and OS paths, and is preferred.

              Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one. If this operation
              fails, zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. If the restoration fails, the
              archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when there's no existing archive or when
              at least one archive member must be updated or deleted.

              Display  the  zip  help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments).

              Display extended help including more  on  command  line  format, pattern matching, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which will include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its subdirectories.
              (Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one.)  The backslash avoids
              the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory
              levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems where \  escapes the next character.  For other
              systems where the shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a directory directly under
              the current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard expansion in the shell
              such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is  used.]   Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the command line, this version
              actually allows -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates at the next argument
              starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list terminator @ (an argument that is just
              @).  So the above can be given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for example.  There must be a space between the option and the first file of a list.  For just
              one file you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not recommended because they can be confusing
              and, in particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the first letter of file combines
              with i to form a two-letter option starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your command line will be
              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the
              patterns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R for more on patterns.

              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only available on systems
              where the case of files is ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
              normally ignored when matching files on the file system but is not ignored for -f (freshen), -d
              (delete), -U (copy), and similar modes when matching against archive entries (currently -f
              ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems where case does matter and names
              that are the same except for case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching
              case insensitive.  This can result in multiple archive entries matching a command line pattern.

              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not store directory names. By
              default, zip will store the full path (relative to the current directory).
              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including volume will be stored. By
              default the relative path will be stored.

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store only the MSDOS attribute (just
              the user write attribute from Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was
              not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those
              with two dots.

              Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. This option should
              not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
              PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR LF, this option adds an extra CR. This
              is to ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file, to undo the
              effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile. Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location is overwritten,
              but the -la option will result in an existing file being opened and the new log information
              appended to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors are written to the log unless the
              -li option is also given, then all information messages are also written to the log.

              Include information messages, such as file names being zipped, in the log.  The default is to
              only include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final status.

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be used on binary
              files.  This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If
              the file is converted and the file is later determined to be binary a warning is issued and the
              file is probably corrupted.  In this release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer read from
              a file, zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on the file.  This check seems to
              catch all binary files tested, but the original check remains and if a converted file is later
              determined to be binary that warning is still issued.  A new algorithm is now being used for
              binary detection that should allow line end conversion of text files in UTF-8 and similar

              Display the zip license.

              Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this deletes the target
              directories/files after making the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after
              removal of the files, the directory is also removed. No deletions are done until zip has created
              the archive without error.  This is useful for conserving disk space, but is potentially
              dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive before
              removing all input files.

              All input patterns must match at least one file and all input files found must be readable.
              Normally when an input pattern does not match a file the "name not matched" warning is issued and
              when an input file has been found but later is missing or not readable a missing or not readable
              warning is issued.  In either case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or unreadable
              new files being skipped and files already in the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive
              is created, if any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most systems)
              instead of the normal success return (0 on most systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an
              input pattern is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be issued) or when an
              input file is not readable.  In either case zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or unreadable
              files will result in an error.  It is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still
              exit with an error if any input pattern doesn't match at least one file and if any matched files
              are unreadable.  If you want to create the archive anyway and only need to know if files were
              skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.  Such files are simply stored (0%
              compression) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste its time trying to compress them.
              The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into, but will store any files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff,
              .gif, or .snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own
              specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not compress files with extensions in the
              list  Such files are stored directly in the output archive.  The
              environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix
              with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). By default,
              zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and
              PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is still done by the
              shell unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wildcard
              substitution is desired.

              [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be restored by using
              the -N option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those files
              that do not have filenotes.

              Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found
              among the entries in the zip archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if desired.
              For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing archive, output the
              new archive to output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without changing the existing archive
              and the input archive must be a different file than the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with -U to copy
              entries from an existing archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another use is converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance, to convert an
              archive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy mode will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and which should be compatible with
              most unzips) to normal entries (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if standard
              encryption was used.  For archives with encrypted entries, zipcloak will decrypt the entries and
              convert them to normal entries.

              Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.  This is the
              default.  The -j option junks the paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating
              systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user; even on
              stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the
              plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is
              truly important, use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak
              standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment prompts.  (Useful, for example, in shell
              scripts and background tasks).

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named,
              including files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-
              name substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in
              directory foo and its subdirectories, use the -i option to specify the pattern of files to be
              included.  You should not use -r with the name ".*", since that matches ".." which will attempt
              to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down directories in the
              file system, any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
              directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on
              Unix and similar systems where the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wildcards
              or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets zip see the wildcards and match files
              in subdirectories using them as it recurses.

              Travel  the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored
              into a zip archive named  Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More
              than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent
              command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the archive, or will after zipping, and can
              have optional wildcards in them.  For example, given the current directory is foo and under it
              are directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will  zip  up  foo/foo1/bar.c.   See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was enabled by default on Windows
              platforms.  Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is
              now off by default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal characters in names.  This option
              enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split archive is an archive that could
              be split over many files.  As the archive is created, if the size of the archive reaches the
              specified split size, that split is closed and the next split opened.  In general all splits but
              the last will be the split size and the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire archive is
              smaller than the split size a single-file archive is created.

              Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is named archive
              and three splits are required, the resulting archive will be in the three files archive.z01,
              archive.z02, and  Do not change the numbering of these files or the archive will not
              be readable as these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently the number must be an
              integer.  The multiplier can currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or
              t (terabytes).  As 64k is the minimum split size, numbers without multipliers default to
              megabytes.  For example, to create a split archive called foo with the contents of the bar
              directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently the old splits of a split archive are not excluded from a new archive, but they can be
              specifically excluded.  If possible, keep the input and output archives out of the path being
              zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in this case the
              current directory.  This split mode updates the splits as the archive is being created, requiring
              all splits to remain writable, but creates split archives that are readable by any unzip that
              supports split archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which allows splits to be
              written directly to removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and provide details of how the splitting
              is being done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next split

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option for how a split archive can be
              updated as it is copied to a new archive.  A split archive can also be converted into a single-
              file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each split
              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new command parser permutes the
              arguments, putting all options and any values associated with them before any non-option
              arguments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere in the command line as long as any values
              that go with the option go with it.  This option displays the command line as zip sees it,
              including any arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed,
              options later in the command line can override options earlier in the command line.

              Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if creating a new archive,
              this will list the files that would be added.  If the option is negated, -sf-, output only to an
              open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for large lists.

              Show all available options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As this command
              reads the option table, it should include all options.  Each line includes the short option (if
              defined), the long option (if defined), the format of any value that goes with the option, if the
              option can be negated, and a small description.  The value format can be no value, required
              value, optional value, single character value, number value, or a list of values.  The output of
              this option is not intended to show how to use any option but only show what options are

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates split archives as -s
              does, but stream writing is used so each split can be closed as soon as it is written and zip
              will pause between each split to allow changing split destination or media.

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses stream archive
              format that may not be readable by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp, test
              a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive see the --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of  the  path  if  exists,
              otherwise show the standard version of the path.

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being done.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date, where mm is the month (00-12), dd
              is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7
              December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is the month (00-12),
              dd is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before 30 November
              1995, to the zip archive

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the old zip file is unchanged and
              (with the -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is used.  On Unix,
              to use a copy of unzip in the current directory instead of the standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In cmd, {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of the archive is
              appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently
              than the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any files which have been modified
              since the zip archive was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack
     into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts like the -f (freshen) option.

              Copy entries from one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a different
              output file than the input archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is being
              used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the archive and all other entries are
              copied to the new archive, while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.
              Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line are matched against archive entries only and
              not the file system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies entries with names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.  The wildcard must be
              escaped on some systems to prevent the shell from substituting names of files from the file
              system which may have no relevance to the entries in the archive.

              If no input files appear on the command line and --out is used, copy mode is assumed:

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting and decrypting entries is not
              yet supported using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition to the standard file
              path, now includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely 7-bit
              ASCII.  When an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts back to the standard file path.
              The problem with using the standard path is this path is in the local character set of the zip
              that created the entry, which may contain characters that are not valid in the character set
              being used by the unzip.  When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has a Unicode path,
              zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the standard path using the current local
              character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there is a mismatch
              between the stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard path
              was updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is assumed that the standard path is more
              current and zip uses that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match
                     w - warn, continue with standard path
                     i - ignore, continue with standard path
                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters that are not valid in the current character set are escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx,
              where x is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number is
              sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the second if the character needs more than 16
              bits to represent it's Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape
              as in
                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on systems where UTF-8 is the
              current character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8
              as in
                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces zip to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that storing UTF-8 directly is the
              default on Unix systems that support it.  This option could be useful on Windows systems where
              the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller,
              but native UTF-8 is not backward compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables the display of a progress
              indicator during compression (see -dd for more on dots) and requests verbose diagnostic info
              about zipfile structure oddities.

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic screen is printed instead.  This
              should now work even if stdout is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
              for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.  The version screen provides the help screen header
              with program name, version, and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution
              sites, and shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version, OS version,
              compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths as strings and given the



              an input pattern such as


              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that in the first
              case a directory boundary (/) was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will be
              included in the match, making wildcards local to a specific directory level.  So, with -ws
              enabled, only the second path would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which will include the contents of foo in while excluding all the files that end in .o.
              The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by
              zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in while excluding all the files that match the
              patterns in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If  there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value
              is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2, uid/gid and file times on Unix).
              The zip format uses extra fields to include additional information for each entry.  Some extra
              fields are specific to particular systems while others are applicable to all systems.  Normally
              when zip reads entries from an existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips the
              rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to that system.  With -X, zip strips all old fields
              and only includes the Unicode and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields cannot be

              Negating this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but also copies over any
              unrecognized extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of
              compressing and storing the file referred to by the link.  This can avoid multiple copies of
              files being included in the archive as zip recurses the directory trees and accesses files
              directly and by links.

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment is ended by a line
              containing just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).
              The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by zip are store and
              deflate.  Compression method can be set to:

              store - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no compression.
              This is generally faster than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This is the
              same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that storing is better than
              deflation, the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method also becomes available.  Only
              some modern unzips currently support the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will be
              using before relying on archives using this method (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -0 indicates no compression
              (store all files), -1 indicates the fastest compression speed (less compression) and -9 indicates
              the slowest compression speed (optimal compression, ignores the suffix list). The default
              compression level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will control compression speed for all
              compression methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32]  Use  priviliges  (if  granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive holding the first file to be
              compressed.  If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn RISC OS. It is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the zip file standard may facilitate better compatibility). zip version 3.0 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB in some cases). zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2 library is included when zip is compiled. Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use PKUN-ZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical uses of zip.

Large Archives and Zip64. zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger than 4 GB are added to an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K. Zip64 is also used for archives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives are not known in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions are not needed). You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryption, or split archives created with the pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the time of this writing does not support data descriptors (but recent changes in the PKWare published zip standard now include some support for the data descriptor format zip uses).

macOS. Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports macOS as part of the Unix port and most Unix features apply. References to "macOS" below generally refer to macOS versions older than macOS. Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix macOS port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.


The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time of last modification, protection, and check information to verify file integrity). An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. (If bzip2 support is added, zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require a reasonably modern unzip to decompress. When bzip2 compression is selected, it replaces deflation as the default method.) zip automatically chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is a direc-
       tory or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the  name
       of  an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries
       in the zip archive (matching the relative names as stored  in  the  ar-
       chive)  or  add  entries for new names.  For example, if exists
       and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the  directory  foo  contains
       the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in and add foo/file3 to  After
       this,  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.   If  a file list is specified as -@ [Not on macOS], zip
       takes the list of input files from standard input instead of  from  the
       command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under  Unix,  this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction
       with the find (1) command.  For example, to archive all  the  C  source
       files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note  that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single  dash  ("-")
       as the zip file name, in which case it will write the zip file to stan-
       dard output, allowing the output to be piped to  another  program.  For

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to  be  com-
       pressed,  in  which  case  it  will  read the file from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up  the  current  directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r  option  because  zip  can  take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
       as  a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program
       funzip  which  is  provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support  this  if
       zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If  Zip64  support  for  large files and archives is enabled and zip is
       used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5
       or  later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in
       the zip file structure as defined in the current zip  standard  (PKWARE
       AppNote)  where  the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data
       is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is  not
       known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the
       option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip will exit with
       an  error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can
       read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the  Zip64  exten-
       sions  if  not  needed  when  archive  entries  are  copied (see the -U
       (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should
       be before the redirection including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When  changing  an  existing zip archive, zip will write a
       temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old one when
       the  process  of  creating  the  new version has been completed without

       If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
       extension  .zip  is  added.  If  the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept  unchanged.   However,
       split  archives  (archives  split over multiple files) require the .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it  scans  for  files  to
       process  (if  needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds,
       zip will display  a  "Scanning  files"  message  and  start  displaying
       progress  dots  every  2  seconds  or  every so many entries processed,
       whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds  between  dots
       it  could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
       a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan
       is  a  two-step  process where the directory scan is followed by a sort
       and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If  updat-
       ing an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file
       scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning  files  dots  are  not  con-
       trolled  by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the
       -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be  used  to  scan  for
       files  and  get  the  list of files scanned without actually processing

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning  but  continues.
       See  the -MM option below for more on how zip handles patterns that are
       not matched and files that  are  not  readable.   If  some  files  were
       skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how
       many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of  command  modes,
       external  and  internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen)
       read files from the file system (as well as from an  existing  archive)
       while  the  internal  modes  (delete  and  copy) operate exclusively on
       entries in an existing archive.

              Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive  does
              not exist create it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update  existing entries if newer on the file system and add new
              files.  If the archive does not exist issue warning then  create
              a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update  existing entries of an archive if newer on the file sys-
              tem.  Does not add new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new ar-
              chive.  This new mode is similar to update but command line pat-
              terns select entries in the existing archive rather  than  files
              from  the  file system and it uses the --out option to write the
              resulting archive to a new file rather than update the  existing
              archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it
       is similar to update.  This mode  synchronizes  the  archive  with  the
       files  on  the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time
       or size of the OS file is different, adding  new  files,  and  deleting
       entries from the archive where there is no matching file.  As this mode
       can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup  copy  of
       the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See  each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section
       below for examples.

       Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create  split  archives.
       A  split  archive  is a standard zip archive split over multiple files.
       (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces,  as
       the  offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Con-
       catenating the pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip
       can  usually  deal  with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a
       spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the  offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple remov-
       able media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the files are typ-
       ically  named  (replace  ARCHIVE  with  the  name  of your archive) AR-
       CHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note  that  the
       last  file  is  the  .zip  file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the
       original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and  using
       volume  labels  to store disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but
       not spanned archives, though a procedure exists  for  converting  split
       archives  of  the  right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also
       true, where each file of a spanned archive can be copied  in  order  to
       files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use  -s  to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or  t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip
       between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
       the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option
       -O (--output-file or --out) to allow split archives to be  updated  and
       saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads  archive,  even if split, adds the files foo.c and
       bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to   If  inar- is split then defaults to the same split size.
       Be aware that if and any split files  that  are  created
       with  it  already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without
       warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an  archive
       using  a  specific character set, in practice zips have stored paths in
       archives in whatever the local character set is.  This creates problems
       when  an  archive is created or updated on a system using one character
       set and then extracted on another system using  a  different  character
       set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms that sup-
       port wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to the standard local
       path  for  backward  compatibility,  the UTF-8 translation of the path.
       This provides a common universal character set for storing  paths  that
       allows  these paths to be fully extracted on other systems that support
       Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but  rep-
       resented in the local character set, it's possible that some paths will
       be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip with  Uni-
       code support now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x sys-
       tems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes
       don't  accurately  show all characters due to how each operating system
       switches in character sets for display.  However, directory  navigation
       tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line pro-
       cessing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A  short  option  that
       takes  a value is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as
       the value.  If the option can be negated and  "-"  immediately  follows
       the  option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as
       separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the  same  argu-
       ment  or  as  the following argument.  An optional = is also supported.





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept  lists  of  values  and  use  a
       slightly  different format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include
       a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and
       can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding  it  with  =
       (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.
       See the option descriptions below for which support long  options.   To
       avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an embedded
       dash ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would  con-
       sider  a  trailing  dash,  such  as  for the option --some-option using
       --some- as the option, as part of  the  name  rather  than  a  negating
       dash).   This might be  changed to force the last dash in --some- to be
       negating in the future.


       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the  files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
       suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name contains  a  dot
       already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because  of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files
       starting with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       To create a password protected archive:

              zip -e file1 file2

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the  current  direc-

       Zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates  the  archive, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       Zip up a directory excluding the DS_Store index files:

              zip -r iconfolder -x "*.DS_Store"

       You may want to make a zip archive that  contains  the  files  in  foo,
       without  recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory and the corresponding compressed zip ar-
       chive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps using the  -m
       option.   If  foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the  completion  of  each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The  size  is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than
       2 GB  each.   If  foo  contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were
       stored in the split archive without compression (to make  this  example
       simple),  this  would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02
       at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow  chang-
       ing  removable  media, for example, but read the descriptions and warn-
       ings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new  option
       -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a
       new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the  files  foo.c  and
       bar.c,  and  writes  the resulting archive to  If inar- is split then defaults to the same split size.
       Be  aware that and any split files that are created with
       it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be changed in  the

       To list the files inside an archive:
              unzip -l


This section applies only to Unix. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation. However, the special wildcard characters * and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called "globbing") on command arguments. Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
              (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wildcard matching  allows
              a  user  to specify a list of characters between square brackets
              and if any of the characters match the expression matches.   For

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would  archive all files in the current directory that end in .h
              or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files  starting  with  "a"  through

              Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
              not in the list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
              to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On  WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option
              to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes), the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern, and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.

The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or, in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files to be operated on, by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it first looks for the name in the file system. If it finds it, it then adds it to the list of files to do. If it does not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using the pattern matching characters described above, if present. For each match, it will add that name to the list of files to be processed, unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not match any name given with the -i option.

The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip do the pattern matching for file paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.


       The following environment  variables  are  read  and  used  by  zip  as

              contains  default  options  that  will be used when running zip.
              The contents of this environment variable will get added to  the
              command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
              native filenames with one of  the  specified  extensions  to  be
              added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

Exit codes:

   0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

   2      unexpected end of zip file.

   3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.
          Processing may have completed successfully anyway;
          some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds.

   4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
          during program initialization.

   5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
          Processing probably failed immediately.

   6      entry  too  large  to  be  processed (such as input files
          larger than 2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying  to  read
          an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large
          to be split with zipsplit

   7      invalid comment format

   8      zip -T failed or out of memory

   9      the user cancelled zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

   10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

   11     read or seek error

   12     zip has nothing to do

   13     missing or empty zip file

   14     error writing to a file

   15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

   16     bad command line parameters

   18     zip could not open a specified file to read

   19     zip  was compiled with options not supported on this system

zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

“He can compress the most words into the smallest ideas of any man I ever met” ~ Abraham Lincoln

Related macOS commands

cpio - Copy files to and from archives.
zipcloak (see man page)
zipnote (see man page)
zipsplit (see man page)
tar - Store, list or extract files in an archive.
compress(1), shar(1L), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

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