Display file checksums and block counts.

Writes to the standard output three (whitespace separated) fields for each input file: CRC_checksum Total_no_of_octets Filename

Syntax cksum [-o 1 | 2 | 3] [file...] sum [file...]

The sum utility is identical to cksum, except that it defaults to using historic algorithm 1, as described below. It is provided for compatibility only.

Options -o Use historic algorithms 1, 2 or 3 instead of the (superior) default one.fileThe file(s) to checksum If nofileis specified, the standard input is used and no file name is written.

**Algorithm 1** is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum(1) algorithm when using the -r option. This is a 16-bit checksum, with a right rotation before each addition; overflow is discarded.

**Algorithm 2** is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum(1) algorithm. This is a 32-bit check-sum, and is defined as follows:

s = sum of all bytes;

r = s % 2^16 + (s % 2^32) / 2^16;

cksum = (r % 2^16) + r / 2^16;

**Algorithm 3** is what is commonly called the `32bit CRC' algorithm.
This is a 32-bit checksum.

Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. For historic reasons, the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. Partial blocks are rounded up.

exit 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO/IEC 8802-3:1989

The checksum encoding algorithm is explained in the full cksum man page.

*“Insisting on perfect safety is for people who don't have the balls to live in the real world” ~ Mary Shafer NASA Flight Research Center*

**Related macOS commands:**

md5(1)

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