for

Loop command. The for loop executes a sequence of commands for each member in a list of items.

Syntax
      for name [in words ...]; do commands; done

For each element in words, name is set to that element, and the commands are executed.
If `in words' is not present, the for command executes the commands once for each positional parameter that is set, as if `in "$@"' had been specified

      for (( expr1 ; expr2 ; expr3 )) ; do commands ; done

Equivalent to:

    	(( EXP1 ))
    	while (( EXP2 )); do
    		commands
    		(( EXP3 ))
    	done

EXP1, EXP2, and EXP3 are arithmetic expressions. If any expression is omitted, it behaves as if it evaluates to 1.

Words

The words can be a simple list of strings file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt or Apple Sony "Hewlett Packard"

Alternatively, create the words by iterating over the output of another command - so to print the numbers from 1 to 10 with backticks:

for i in `seq 1 10` 
 do       
echo "$i"
done

or with Brace Expansion.

for i in {1..10} 
 do       
echo "$i"
done

or as a one liner:
for i in {1..10}; do echo $i; done

When a wildcard is introduced, then words will match against filenames, * will match every file in the directory.

for thisfile in *; do
   echo "found $thisfile"
done

The second form of the for command is evaluated thus:

First, the arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated according to shell arithmetic expression rules.
The arithmetic expression expr2 is then evaluated repeatedly until it evaluates to zero.

Each time expr2 evaluates to a non-zero value, commands are executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 is evaluated.
If any expression is omitted, it behaves as if it evaluates to 1.

Return Status

The Return Status of for will be the exit status of the last command that executes, (if there are multiple expressions then the last command in list .)
If there are no items in the expansion of words, no commands are executed, and the return status is zero.

The return status is false if any of the expressions is invalid.

Positional Parameters

These are assigned from the shell's arguments when the shell is invoked, they can be reassigned using the set builtin command.
Positional parameter N can be referenced as ${N}, or as $N when N consists of a single digit. $1, $2 etc.

This is a BASH shell builtin, to display your local syntax from the bash prompt type: help for

Examples

#! /bin/bash
# List of manufacturers
for manufacturer in Apple Sony "Hewlett Packard" Nokia
do
echo "Manufacturer is:" $manufacturer
done

# The above can also be written as a single line...
for manufacturer in Apple Sony "Hewlett Packard" Nokia; do echo "Manufacturer is:" $manufacturer;done


# Rename a bunch of iPhone screenshot files from IMG_0001.PNG, IMG_0002.PNG...
# to ScreenShot01.png,ScreenShot01.png...

for name in IMG*PNG
do # Work out the new name
newname="$(echo $name | sed "s/IMG_00/ScreenShot/;s/PNG/png/")" # Move/rename the files
echo "renaming $name as $newname"
mv $name $newname
done

"In expanding the field of knowledge, we but increase the horizon of ignorance" ~ Henry Miller

Related macOS commands:

break - Exit from a loop
while - Execute commands
continue - Resume the next iteration of a while or foreach loop
until - Execute commands (until error)


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