if

Conditionally perform a command.

Syntax
      if test-commands; then
        consequent-commands;
      [elif more-test-commands; then
        more-consequents;]
      [else alternate-consequents;]
      fi

Or in a single line:
     if test-commands; then consequent-commands; fi

The test-commands list is executed, and if it's return status is zero (success), the consequent-commands list is executed.

Although if is most often used with test to return a True/False decision, it can be used with any command that returns an exit code of 0 for success.

If test-commands returns a non-zero status, each elif list is executed in turn, and if its exit status is zero, the corresponding more-consequents is executed and the command completes.

If `else alternate-consequents' is present, and the final command in the final if or elif clause has a non-zero exit status, the alternate-consequents is executed.

For simple comparisons, a more concise option is to use test along with the conditional operator && instead of IF.

for example
var=snark
[[ "$var" = "snark" ]] && echo "found snark"

or the equivalent using if:

var=snark
if [[ "$var" = "snark" ]]
 then echo "found snark"
fi

Test if the file music.txt exists:

If [[ -e music.txt ]]; then   
  echo "we found the file"
fi

The return status is the exit status of the last command executed, or zero if no condition tested true.

if is a bash builtin command.

"Then you admit confirming not denying you ever said that?"
"NO! ... I mean Yes! WHAT?"
I'll put `maybe' - Bloom County

Related:

awk - Find and Replace text within file(s)
eval - Evaluate several commands/arguments
expr - Evaluate expressions
for - Loop command
switch - Conditionally perform a command
while - Loop command
File operators -f


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