ps Keywords

Keywords for the ps command.
Multiple keywords can be space or comma separated.

     %cpu    The cpu utilization of the process; this is a decaying average
             over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time base
             over which this is computed varies (since processes can be very
             young) it is possible for the sum of all %CPU fields to exceed 100%.

     %mem    The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags   The flags associated with the process as in the include file:

       P_ADVLOCK     0x00001     Process might hold a POSIX advisory lock
       P_CONTROLT    0x00002     Has a controlling terminal
       P_INMEM       0x00004     Loaded into memory
       P_NOCLDSTOP   0x00008     No SIGCHLD when children stop
       P_PPWAIT      0x00010     Parent is waiting for child to exec/exit
       P_PROFIL      0x00020     Has started profiling
       P_SELECT      0x00040     Selecting; wakeup/waiting danger
       P_SINTR       0x00080     Sleep is interruptible
       P_SUGID       0x00100     Had set id privileges since last exec
       P_SYSTEM      0x00200     System proc: no sigs, stats or swapping
       P_TIMEOUT     0x00400     Timing out during sleep
       P_TRACED      0x00800     Debugged process being traced
       P_WAITED      0x01000     Debugging process has waited for child
       P_WEXIT       0x02000     Working on exiting
       P_EXEC        0x04000     Process called exec
       P_NOSWAP      0x08000     Another flag to prevent swap out
       P_PHYSIO      0x10000     Doing physical I/O
       P_OWEUPC      0x20000     Owe process an addupc() call at next ast
       P_SWAPPING    0x40000     Process is being swapped

     lim     The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to

     lstart  The exact time the command started, using the ``%c'' format
             described in strftime(3).

     nice    The process scheduling increment (see setpriority(2)).

     rss     the real memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024 byte

     start   The time the command started.  If the command started less than
       24 hours ago, the start time is displayed using the ``%l:ps.1p''
       format described in strftime(3).  If the command started less
       than 7 days ago, the start time is displayed using the
       ``%a6.15p'' format.  Otherwise, the start time is displayed using
       the ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state   The state is given by a sequence of letters, for example,
             'RWNA''.  The first letter indicates the run state of the process:

       D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninterruptible) wait.
       I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than about 20 seconds).
       R       Marks a runnable process.
       S       Marks a process that is sleeping for less than about 20 seconds.
       T       Marks a stopped process.
       Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

       Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
       state information:

       +       The process is in the foreground process group of its control terminal.
       <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
       >       The process has specified a soft limit on memory requirements and is currently
               exceeding that limit; such a process is (necessarily) not swapped.
       A       the process has asked for random page replacement
               (VA_ANOM, from vadvise(2), for example, lisp(1) in a garbage collect).
       E       The process is trying to exit.
       L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for raw I/O).
       N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see setpriority(2)).
       S       The process has asked for FIFO page replacement (VA_SEQL,
               from vadvise(2), for example, a large image processing
               program using virtual memory to sequentially address
               voluminous data).
       s       The process is a session leader.
       V       The process is suspended during a vfork.
       W       The process is swapped out.
       X       The process is being traced or debugged.

     tt        An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling terminal, if
               any.  The abbreviation consists of the three letters following
               /dev/tty, or, for the console, ``con''.  This is followed by a
               '-' if the process can no longer reach that controlling termi-
               nal (i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan     The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
       When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
       trimmed off and the result is printed in hex, for example,
       0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a process that has exited and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is listed as ``'', and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as ``''.   Ps makes an educated guess as
     to the file name and arguments given when the process was created by
     examining memory or the swap area.   The method is inherently somewhat
     unreliable and in any event a process is entitled to destroy this infor-
     mation, so the names cannot be depended on too much.
     The ucomm (accounting) keyword can, however, be depended on.


     The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their
     meanings.  Several of them have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu  percentage cpu usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem  percentage memory usage (alias pmem)
     acflag  accounting flag (alias acflg)
     command  command and arguments
     cpu  short-term cpu usage factor (for scheduling)
     flags  the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     gid  the effective gid
     inblk  total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc  job control count
     ktrace  tracing flags
     ktracep  tracing vnode
     lim  memoryuse limit
     logname  login name of user who started the process
     lstart  time started
     majflt  total page faults
     minflt  total page reclaims
     msgrcv  total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd  total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     nice  nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw  total involuntary context switches
     nsigs  total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap  total swaps in/out
     nvcsw  total voluntary context switches
     nwchan  wait channel (as an address)
     oublk  total blocks written (alias oublock)
     p_ru  resource usage (valid only for zombie)
     paddr  swap address
     pagein  pageins (same as majflt)
     pgid  process group number
     pid  process ID
     poip  pageouts in progress
     ppid  parent process ID
     pri  scheduling priority
     re    core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid  real group ID
     rlink  reverse link on run queue, or 0
     rss  resident set size
     rsz  resident set size + (text size / text use count) (alias rssize)
     rtprio  realtime priority (101 = not a realtime process)
     ruid  real user ID
     ruser  user name (from ruid)
     sess  session pointer
     sig  pending signals (alias pending)
     sigcatch  caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore  ignored signals (alias ignored)
     sigmask  blocked signals (alias blocked)
     sl    sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     start  time started
     state  symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid  saved gid from a setgid executable
     svuid  saved uid from a setuid executable
     tdev  control terminal device number
     time  accumulated cpu time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid  control terminal process group ID
     tsess  control terminal session pointer
     tsiz  text size (in Kbytes)
     tt    control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty  full name of control terminal
     uprocp  process pointer
     ucomm  name to be used for accounting
     uid  effective user ID
     upr  scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user  user name (from uid)
     vsz  virtual size in Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan  wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat  exit or stop status (valid only for stopped or zombie process)

Related macOS commands:

kill - Stop a process from running.
ps - Process status.

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