macOS Keyboard Shortcuts

Screen Capture to disk:

  command Shift Key 3                   Screen to jpeg file on desktop
  command Shift Key 4 + Drag:           Selection to jpeg file on desktop
  command Shift Key 4 + Spacebar:       Window (click camera) to jpeg file

Screen Capture to clipboard:

  command Shift Key 3 + Ctrl:           Screen to clipboard
  command Shift Key 4 + Drag + Ctrl:    Selection to clipboard
  command Shift Key 4 + Spacebar + Ctrl Window (Camera effect)

Copy and Paste

  command X      Cut
  command C      Copy
  command V      Paste 
  command option ⇧ V Paste and match style, may not work everywhere.

Dock /Switch Applications

  command option D      Show/Hide Dock
  command Tab      Switch applications (even while dragging a file)
  command `        Switch between document Windows in current application
  option Dock     Switch application, hide previous one
  command Dock     Switch application, hide all others
 Ctrl option command 8  Toggle Monochrome Hi Visibility (Accessibility)
  command +drag will prevent dock icons from moving out of the way
             (useful when dragging items to the trash)

Apple Finder

  option + Drag   Explicit COPY (will copy even if destation is on same volume)
  command + Drag   Explicit MOVE (will move even if destation is on different volume)
  command option + Drag Make alias in new location
  ⌘ ⇧ .     Show/Hide hidden files (toggle) 
  command D        Duplicate
  command L        Make Alias
  command R        Show original
  command O        Open item
  command ↓        Open item
  command option C     Copy File/Folder pathname to the clipboard
  command S        Save
  command Shift Key S      Save as
  command N        New Finder window
  command Shift Key N      New Folder
  command Q        Quit Application
  command W        Close Window
  command option W      Close all Windows
  command I        Get Info
  command option I      Super Get Info (change whatever you click on)
  command option S      Show/Hide the Finder sidebar
  command option Y      Toggle Slideshow mode (show selected graphic files full-screen)
  command P        Print
  command T        Add to Favorites
  command ⌫       Delete/Move to Trash
  command option ⌫    Delete immediately (El Capitan)
  command E        Eject
  command F        Find
  command ~        Cycle finder windows (including desktop)
  Tab        Highlight next item
  ⌘ + double-click folder icon will open in new window
  ⌘ + ↑      Move up one directory
  ⌘ + [      go back
  ⌘ + ]      go forward
  ⌘ ⇧ ⌫     Empty Trash (Finder Menu )
  ⌘ ⇧ ⌥ ⌫   Empty Trash without dialog

Finder, plus Open/Save dialogues

  ⌘ ⇧ A     Jump to /Applications
  ⌘ ⇧ U     Jump to /Applications/Utilities/
  ⌘ ⇧ D     Jump to ~/Desktop
  ⌘ ⇧ H     Jump to Home Folder ~/
  ⌘ ⇧ C     Jump to /Computer (a virtual folder displaying all mounted disks)
  ⌘ ⇧ G     Go to folder - allows you to type in a path (with tab-completion.)
  ⌘ ⇧ K     Go to network
  ⌘ K        Connect to server
  ⌘ ⇧ .     Toggle hidden files (only in apps that support this.)

Finder-Hide App:
  command H        Hide Application 
  command option H      Hide other applications

Hide all other apps*:
  option command + click on dock icon
  option command + click inside app window

Hide all other apps that are in front*:
  option + click dock icon (of running app)
  option + click inside app window

*Some older (pre-intel) apps may struggle with these


  Spacebar (or command Y)   Activate QuickLook on the selected file(s)
  command option Y               Full Screen QuickLook on the selected file(s)


  option + Click            Move the insertion point (this emits arrow keys)
  command left/right arrow   Switch windows
command 1 Switch to 1st terminal window command 2, command 3... Switch to 2nd, 3rd window


  command Spacebar           Activate/deactivate Spotlight
  command option Spacebar         Open Spotlight window
  command Return / command Click   Open the top/next item
  command ↓ / ↑              Move to next/previous category

Editing Text (email, TextEdit etc)

  option ←       Move one word left
  option →       Move one word right
 Ctrl A     Beginning of Sentence (Home)
 Ctrl E     End of Sentence(End) 
  command ←       Beginning of line
  command →       End of line
  command Ctrl Spacebar    Open Emoji character panel 😎 (Emoji, symbols and punctuation)
  option [       “  Smart quote (open/left)
  option Shift Key [     ” Smart quote (close/right)
  option ]       ‘  Smart quote (open/left) Also Apostrophe: O‘Brien
  option Shift Key ]     ’ Smart quote (close/right)
  up          Scroll one page up (cursor retains position)
  down          Scroll one page down (cursor retains position)
  option up        Move one page up  (reposition cursor)
  option down        Move one page down
  command ↑ or up/left  Scroll to beginning of document
  command ↓ or down/right  Scroll to end of document

  Add shift key Shift Key to the above to also select the text.

  option ⌫      Delete previous word  
  option Del     Delete next word
 Ctrl D     Delete next character (Del)
  command Shift Key .     Show hidden files in open and save dialogs (Snow Leopard only)
  command Shift Key /     Open Application Help (Search)

  option Scrollbar           Jump to exact scrollbar location
  option Scrollbar arrows    Scroll page at a time (page up/down)
  option Volume up/down      Open Sound preferences
  Control Shift Key Eject       Turn display off (brightness=0)
  option Brightness up/down  Open Display preferences


  POWER         Sleep now
  POWER         Hold for 10 seconds (force shut down)  
  Ctrl Eject    Restart, Sleep, Shutdown dialog box
Ctrl Shift Key Eject Sleep the display now command option Eject Sleep the computer now command Ctrl Eject Quit all applications and restart command option Ctrl Eject Shut down the computer now (Graceful Shutdown) command option Esc Force Quit menu - selectively force quit applications command option Shift Key Esc Hold for three seconds to Force Quit the foremost application (Leopard/Snow Leopard) command .(period) Stop a process command Ctrl+power Immediate restart (dangerous, only use if the system is frozen) To Restart a system that fails a normal shutdown, open a terminal window and type: sudo shutdown -r now
Hardware diagnostics at startup Pre 2012 Macs: Hold down the D key to run Apple Hardware test.

Post 2012 Macs: Hold down the D key to run Apple Diagnostics.

Log out:

  command Shift Key Q         Log out (Apple Menu)
  command Shift Key option Q       Log out immediately (Apple Menu)

During Startup:

  Shift      Safe Boot mode - Press shift asap AFTER the startup chime 
  command V        Start up in Verbose mode.
  command R        Start Recovery System (Restore/Repair/reinstall macOS)
  command S        Start up in Single-User mode (command line)
    X        Force macOS startup
    C        Start up from a CD (if it has a system folder)
    D        Start Apple Diagnostics from first partition
    N        Attempt to start up from a network server(NetBoot)
    R        Force PowerBook screen reset
    T        Start up in FireWire Target Disk mode
  Option     Select startup disk
  command option Shift Key ⌫   Bypass primary startup volume (will seek DVD or external disk)
  command option P R   PRAM Reset - Hold down Cmd-Option-R with your left hand,
              then press POWER to start up and immediately press P with your right hand.
              See HT204063  At the prompt you can  type: reset-nvram and/or reset-all 
  command option O F   Open Firmware
  command E        Eject CD (press during/after startup chime)
  mouse      Eject CD (hold mouse button down during startup)

command is the Command or Apple key
option is the Option or Alt key
Shift Key is the Shift key
⌫ is the Backspace key

System Preferences

To disable or change any keyboard shortcuts, open System Preferences | Keyboard | Shortcuts
per-application settings can be added under App Shortcuts press [+]
To reset to the default settings, open Keyboard Shortcuts and press [Restore Defaults]

To enable keyboard control in dialog boxes: Keyboard | Full Keyboard Access=All Controls
Full keyboard access will allow you to use Tab,Shift-Tab,Enter, Esc and the Space bar to navigate a dialogue box.

To display an on screen keyboard: System Preferences | Language & Text | Input sources | Keyboard/Character viewer

Function Keys

F3 or Ctrl + ↑ Open Mission control / Spaces
F8 Toggle Space
F9 Exposé - Show all open windows
F10 Exposé - Show all open windows for an application
F11 Hide all windows
F12 Open/close Dashboard
Add Shift Key to the above F.Keys for a slow-motion effect

You can discover additional keyboard shortcuts by opening a menu and pressing the ⌥ (Option) and ⇧ (Shift) keys. For example, in Finder, open the File menu and press the ⌥ (Option) key.

'Command + Tab' cycles through Applications,
'Command + ~ (tilde)' cycles through an individual Applications windows"

Related macOS comands:

Bash Terminal Keyboard shortcuts
nvram - Manipulate or reset firmware variables.
macOS Key bindings - Remap the Home and End Keys
HT201236 - Keyboard Shortcuts Quick Reference (Apple)
screencapture - Take Screenshots
Applications:Utilities:Grab - Copy the screen to a TIFF file with (optional) 10 second delay
DanRodney - macOS Keyboard Shortcuts

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