Screen Capture to disk:
3 Screen to jpeg file on desktop. 4 + Drag Selection to jpeg file on desktop. 4 + Spacebar Window (click camera) to jpeg file.
Screen Capture to clipboard:
3 + Ctrl Screen to clipboard. 4 + Drag + Ctrl Selection to clipboard. 4 + Spacebar + Ctrl Window (Camera effect) to clipboard.
Copy and Paste
X Cut. C Copy. V Paste. ⇧ V Paste and match style, may not work everywhere.
Dock /Switch Applications
D Show/Hide Dock. Ctrl F Enter or exit Full Screen mode (or press + Green zoom button). Tab Switch applications (even while dragging a file). ` Switch between document Windows in current application. Dock Switch application, hide previous one. Dock Switch application, hide all others. Ctrl 8 Toggle Monochrome Hi Visibility (Accessibility). +drag will prevent dock icons from moving out of the way. (useful when dragging items to the trash).
+ Drag Explicit COPY (will copy even if destation is on same volume). + Drag Explicit MOVE (will move even if destation is on different volume). + Drag Make alias in new location. ⌘ ⇧ . Show/Hide hidden files (toggle). D Duplicate. L Make Alias. R Show original. O Open item. ↓ Open item. C Copy File/Folder pathname to the clipboard. S Save. S Save as. N New Finder window. N New Folder. Q Quit Application. W Close Window. W Close all Windows. I Get Info. I Super Get Info (change whatever you click on). S Show/Hide the Finder sidebar. Y Toggle Slideshow mode (show selected graphic files full-screen). P Print. T Open new Tab. ⌫ Delete/Move to Trash. ⌫ Delete immediately. E Eject. F Find. ~ Cycle finder windows (including desktop). Tab Highlight next item. ⌘ + double-click folder icon will open in new window. ⌘ + ↑ Move up one directory. ⌘ + [ go back. ⌘ + ] go forward. ⌘ ⇧ ⌫ Empty Trash (Finder Menu ). ⌘ ⇧ ⌥ ⌫ Empty Trash without dialog. Finder, plus Open/Save dialogues: ⌘ ⇧ A Jump to /Applications ⌘ ⇧ U Jump to /Applications/Utilities/ ⌘ ⇧ D Jump to ~/Desktop ⌘ ⇧ H Jump to Home Folder ~/ ⌘ ⇧ C Jump to /Computer (a virtual folder displaying all mounted disks). ⌘ ⇧ G Go to folder - allows you to type in a path (with tab-completion). ⌘ ⇧ K Go to network. ⌘ K Connect to server. ⌘ ⇧ . Toggle hidden files (only in apps that support this.) Finder-Hide App: H Hide Application. H Hide other applications. Hide all other apps: + click on dock icon. + click inside app window. Hide all other apps that are in front: + click dock icon (of running app) + click inside app window.
Spacebar (or Y) Activate QuickLook on the selected file(s). Y Full Screen QuickLook on the selected file(s).
+ Click Move the insertion point (this emits arrow keys). left/right arrow Switch windows.
1 Switch to 1st terminal window. 2, 3... Switch to 2nd, 3rd window.
J Play backwards/speed. K Stop (also spacebar and . ) L Play forwards/speed. ← Move one frame forward (or 0.25 sec on audio). → Move one frame back. I Set start point (QT 7 only) O Set end point (QT 7 only)
Spacebar Activate/deactivate Spotlight. Spacebar Open Spotlight window. Return / Click Open the top/next item. ↓ / ↑ Move to next/previous category.
Editing Text (email, TextEdit etc)
← Move one word left. → Move one word right. Ctrl A Beginning of Sentence (Home). Ctrl E End of Sentence (End). ← Beginning of line. → End of line. Ctrl Spacebar Open Emoji character panel 😎 (Emoji, symbols and punctuation) [ “ Smart quote (open/left) [ ” Smart quote (close/right) ] ‘ Smart quote (open/left) Also Apostrophe: O‘Brien ] ’ Smart quote (close/right) Scroll one page up. (cursor retains position) Scroll one page down. (cursor retains position) Move one page up. (reposition cursor) Move one page down. ↑ or Scroll to beginning of document. ↓ or Scroll to end of document. Add shift key to the above to also select the text. ⌫ Delete previous word . Del Delete next word. Ctrl D Delete next character (Del) . Show hidden files in open and save dialogs. (Snow Leopard only) / Open Application Help (Search) Scrollbar Jump to exact scrollbar location. Scrollbar arrows Scroll page at a time (page up/down) Volume up/down Open Sound preferences. Control Eject Turn display off (brightness=0) Brightness up/down Open Display preferences.
POWER Sleep now. POWER Hold for 10 seconds (force shut down). Ctrl Eject Restart, Sleep, Shutdown dialog box.
Ctrl Eject Sleep the display now. Eject Sleep the computer now. Ctrl Eject Quit all applications and restart. Ctrl Eject Shut down the computer now (Graceful Shutdown). Esc Force Quit menu - selectively force quit applications. Esc Hold for three seconds to Force Quit the foremost application. .(period) Stop a process. Ctrl+power Immediate restart (dangerous, only use if the system is frozen).
To boot into Safe mode:
To return to normal mode, restart the Mac without holding down any keys.
To Restart a system that fails a normal shutdown, open a terminal window and type: sudo shutdown -r now
Q Log out. (Apple Menu) Q Log out immediately. (Apple Menu)
Shift Safe Boot mode - Press shift asap AFTER the startup chime. V Start up in Verbose mode. S Start up in Single-User mode (command line). X Force macOS startup. C Start up from a CD (if it has a system folder). D Start Apple Diagnostics from first partition (or Apple Hardware test on Pre 2012 Macs). N Attempt to start up from a network server(NetBoot). R Force PowerBook screen reset. T Start up in FireWire Target Disk mode. Option Select a startup disk. ⌫ Bypass primary startup volume (will seek DVD or external disk) P R PRAM Reset - Hold down Cmd-Option-R with your left hand, then press POWER to start up and immediately press P with your right hand. See HT204063 At the prompt you can type: reset-nvram and/or reset-all O F Open Firmware E Eject CD (press during/after startup chime) mouse Eject CD (hold mouse button down during startup)
macOS Recovery (Restore/Repair/reinstall macOS)
At startup, press and hold one of the following key combinations:
R Install the latest macOS that was installed on your Mac. [recommended] R Upgrade to the latest macOS compatible with your Mac. R Install the macOS that came with your Mac, or the closest version still available.
is the Command or Apple key
is the Option or Alt key
is the Shift key
⌫ is the Backspace key
To disable or change any keyboard shortcuts, open System Preferences | Keyboard | Shortcuts
per-application settings can be added under App Shortcuts press [+]
To reset to the default settings, open Keyboard Shortcuts and press [Restore Defaults]
To enable keyboard control in dialog boxes: Keyboard | Full Keyboard Access=All Controls
Full keyboard access will allow you to use Tab,Shift-Tab,Enter, Esc and the Space bar to navigate a dialogue box.
To display an on screen keyboard: System Preferences | Language & Text | Input sources | Keyboard/Character viewer
F3 or Ctrl + ↑ Open Mission control / Spaces.
F8 Toggle Space.
F9 Exposé - Show all open windows.
F10 Exposé - Show all open windows for an application.
F11 Hide all windows.
F12 Open/close Dashboard.
Add to the above F.Keys for a slow-motion effect
You can discover additional keyboard shortcuts by opening a menu and pressing the ⌥ (Option) and ⇧ (Shift) keys. For example, in Finder, open the File menu and press the ⌥ (Option) key.
'Command + Tab' cycles through Applications,
'Command + ~ (tilde)' cycles through an individual Applications windows"
Related macOS comands:
Bash Terminal Keyboard shortcuts
nvram - Manipulate or reset firmware variables.
macOS Key bindings - Remap the Home and End Keys.
HT201236 - Keyboard Shortcuts Quick Reference (Apple).
screencapture - Take Screenshots.
Applications:Utilities:Grab - Copy the screen to a TIFF file with (optional) 10 second delay.
DanRodney - macOS Keyboard Shortcuts.