OS X Keyboard Shortcuts

Screen Capture to disk:

  command Shift Key 3                   Screen to jpeg file on desktop
  command Shift Key 4 + Drag:           Selection to jpeg file on desktop
  command Shift Key 4 + Spacebar:       Window (click camera) to jpeg file

Screen Capture to clipboard:

  command Shift Key 3 + Ctrl:           Screen to clipboard
  command Shift Key 4 + Drag + Ctrl:    Selection to clipboard
  command Shift Key 4 + Spacebar + Ctrl Window (Camera effect)

Dock /Switch Applications

  command option D      Show/Hide Dock
  command Tab      Switch applications (even while dragging a file)
  command `        Switch between document Windows in current application
  option Dock     Switch application, hide previous one
  command Dock     Switch application, hide all others
 Ctrl option command *  Toggle Monochrome Hi Visibility
  command +drag will prevent dock icons from moving out of the way
             (useful when dragging items to the trash)

Apple Finder

  option + Drag   Explicit COPY (will copy even if destation is on same volume)
  command + Drag   Explicit MOVE (will move even if destation is on different volume)
  command option + Drag Make alias in new location
  command D        Duplicate
  command L        Make Alias
  command R        Show original
  command O        Open item
  command ↓        Open item
  command S        Save
  command Shift Key S      Save as
  command N        New Finder window
  command Shift Key N      New Folder
  command Q        Quit Application
  command W        Close Window
  command option W      Close all Windows
  command I        Get Info
  command option I      Super Get Info (change whatever you click on)
  command option S      Show/Hide the Finder sidebar
  command option Y      Toggle Slideshow mode (show selected graphic files full-screen)
  command P        Print
  command T        Add to Favorites
  command Delete   Move to Trash
  command E        Eject
  command F        Find
  command ~        Cycle finder windows (including desktop)
  Tab        Highlight next item
  command + double-click folder icon will open in new window
  command + ↑      Move up one directory
  command + [      go back
  command + ]      go forward
  command Shift Key A     Open Applications Folder
  command Shift Key D     Open Desktop Folder
  command Shift Key U     Open Applications/Utilities/ Folder
  command Shift Key H     Open Home Folder
  command Shift Key K     Go to network
  command K        Connect to server
  command Shift Key G     Go to folder... (type full path)
  command Shift Key ⌫     Empty Trash (Finder Menu )
  command Shift Key option ⌫   Empty Trash without dialog

Finder-Hide App:
  command H        Hide Application 
  command option H      Hide other applications

Hide all other apps*:
  option command + click on dock icon
  option command + click inside app window

Hide all other apps that are in front*:
  option + click dock icon (of running app)
  option + click inside app window

*Some older (pre-intel) apps may struggle with these

QuickLook

  Spacebar (or command Y)   Activate QuickLook on the selected file(s)
  command option Y               Full Screen QuickLook on the selected file(s)

Terminal

  command left/right arrow   Switch windows
command 1 Switch to 1st terminal window command 2, command 3... Switch to 2nd, 3rd window

Spotlight

  command Spacebar           Activate/deactivate Spotlight
  command option Spacebar         Open Spotlight window
  command Return / command Click   Open the top/next item
  command ↓ / ↑              Move to next/previous category

Editing Text (email, TextEdit etc)

  option ←       Move one word left
  option →       Move one word right
 Ctrl A     Beginning of Sentence (Home)
 Ctrl E     End of Sentence(End) 
  command ←       Beginning of line
  command →       End of line
  command Ctrl Spacebar    Enter an Emoji character 
  option [       “  Smart quote (open/left)
  option Shift Key [     ” Smart quote (close/right)
  option ]       ‘  Smart quote (open/left) Also Apostrophe: O‘Brien
  option Shift Key ]     ’ Smart quote (close/right)
            Scroll one page up (cursor retains position)
            Scroll one page down (cursor retains position)
  option         Move one page up  (reposition cursor)
  option         Move one page down
  command ↑ or   Scroll to beginning of document
  command ↓ or   Scroll to end of document

  Add shift key Shift Key to the above to also select the text.

  option ⌫      Delete previous word  
  option Del     Delete next word
 Ctrl D     Delete next character (Del)
  command Shift Key .     Show hidden files in open and save dialogs (Snow Leopard only)
  command Shift Key /     Open Application Help (Search)

  option Scrollbar           Jump to exact scrollbar location
  option Scrollbar arrows    Scroll page at a time (page up/down)
  option Volume up/down      Open Sound preferences
  Control Shift Key Eject       Turn display off (brightness=0)
  option Brightness up/down  Open Display preferences

Shutdown/Logoff:

  POWER         Sleep now
  POWER         Hold for 10 seconds (force shut down)  
  Ctrl Eject    Restart, Sleep, Shutdown dialog box
Ctrl Shift Key Eject Sleep the display now command option Eject Sleep the computer now command Ctrl Eject Quit all applications and restart command option Ctrl Eject Shut down the computer now (Graceful Shutdown) command option Esc Force Quit menu - selectively force quit applications command option Shift Key Esc Hold for three seconds to Force Quit the foremost application (Leopard/Snow Leopard) command .(period) Stop a process command Ctrl+power Immediate restart (dangerous, only use if the system is frozen) To Restart a system that fails a normal shutdown, open a terminal window and type: sudo shutdown -r now

Log out:

  command Shift Key Q         Log out (Apple Menu)
  command Shift Key option Q       Log out immediately (Apple Menu)

During Startup:

  Shift      Safe Boot mode - Press shift asap AFTER the startup chime 
  command V        Start up in Verbose mode.
  command S        Start up in Single-User mode (command line)
    X        Force OS X startup
  command option Shift Key ⌫   Bypass primary startup volume (will seek DVD or external disk)
    C        Start up from a CD (if it has a system folder)
    D        Start Apple Diagnostics from first partition
    N        Attempt to start up from a network server(NetBoot)
    R        Force PowerBook screen reset
    T        Start up in FireWire Target Disk mode
  Option     Select startup disk 
  command option P R   PRAM Reset - Hold down Cmd-Option-R with your left hand,
              then press POWER to start up and immediately press P with your right hand.
              See KB 2238  At the prompt you can  type: reset-nvram and/or reset-all 
  command option O F   Open Firmware
  command E        Eject CD (press during/after startup chime)
  mouse      Eject CD (hold mouse button down during startup)

command is the Command or Apple key
option is the Option or Alt key
Shift Key is the Shift key
⌫ is the Backspace key

System Preferences

To change any keyboard shortcuts (including per-application settings) open System Preferences | Keyboard | Keyboard Shortcuts and press [+]
To reset to defaults, open Keyboard Shortcuts and press [Restore Defaults]

To enable keyboard control in dialog boxes: Keyboard | Full Keyboard Access=All Controls
Full keyboard access will allow you to use Tab,Shift-Tab,Enter, Esc and the Space bar to navigate a dialogue box.

To display an on screen keyboard: System Preferences | Language & Text | Input sources | Keyboard/Character viewer

Function Keys

F3 or Ctrl + ↑ Open Mission control / Spaces
F8 Toggle Space
F9 Exposé - Show all open windows
F10 Exposé - Show all open windows for an application
F11 Hide all windows
F12 Open/close Dashboard
Add Shift Key to the above F.Keys for a slow-motion effect

You can discover additional keyboard shortcuts by opening a menu and pressing the ⌥ (Option) and ⇧ (Shift) keys. For example, in Finder, open the File menu and press the ⌥ (Option) key.

'Command + Tab' cycles through Applications,
'Command + ~ (tilde)' cycles through an individual Applications windows"

Related:

Bash Terminal Keyboard shortcuts
screencapture (screenshots of DVDs)
Applications:Utilities:Grab
Lifehacker - Remap the Home and End keys
Apple Kb HT1343 - Keyboard Shortcuts Quick Reference
Apple Kb HT1533 - Startup key combinations for Intel-based Macs
Spectacle app - Shortcut keys for Maximise/Minimise.
Accent Codes for the Macintosh
Customizing the Cocoa Text System - Jacob Rus
DanRodney - OS X Keyboard Shortcuts
Mac OS X Leopard: 200 Keyboard Shortcuts (Safari, Mail etc)
Keyboard Layout.dmg - Swap the " and @ Keys for non-apple keyboards (Microsoft)


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