How-to: Arrays

Bash provides one-dimensional array variables. Any variable can be used as an array; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array. There is no maximum limit on the size of an array, nor any requirement that members be indexed or assigned contiguously. Arrays are zero-based.

An array is created automatically if any variable is assigned to using the syntax:


The subscript is treated as an arithmetic expression that must evaluate to a number greater than or equal to zero. To explicitly declare an array, use

declare -a name

The syntax

declare -a name[subscript]

is also accepted; the subscript is ignored. Attributes can be specified for an array variable using the declare and readonly builtins. Each attribute applies to all members of an array.

Arrays are assigned to using compound assignments of the form:

name=(value1 ... valuen)

where each value is of the form [[subscript]=]string. If the optional subscript is supplied, that index is assigned to; otherwise the index of the element assigned is the last index assigned to by the statement plus one. Indexing starts at zero.
This syntax is also accepted by the declare builtin.
Individual array elements can be assigned to using the name[subscript]=value syntax introduced above.

Any element of an array can be referenced using ${name[subscript]}.

The braces are required to avoid conflicts with the shell’s filename expansion operators.

If the subscript is '@' or '*', the word expands to all members of the array name. These subscripts differ only when the word appears within double quotes. If the word is double-quoted, ${name[*]} expands to a single word with the value of each array member separated by the first character of the IFS variable, and ${name[@]} expands each element of name to a separate word.
When there are no array members, ${name[@]} expands to nothing. This is analogous to the expansion of the special parameters '@' and '*'. ${#name[subscript]} expands to the length of ${name[subscript]}. If subscript is '@' or '*', the expansion is the number of elements in the array.

Referencing an array variable without a subscript is equivalent to referencing element zero.

The unset builtin is used to destroy arrays. unset name[subscript] destroys the array element at index subscript.

unset name, where name is an array, removes the entire array. A subscript of '*' or '@' also removes the entire array.

The declare, local, and readonly builtins each accept a '-a' option to specify an array.

The contents of the directory stack are also visible as the value of the DIRSTACK shell variable.

Related Linux commands

The read builtin accepts a '-a' option to assign a list of words read from the standard input to an array, and can read values from the standard input into individual array elements.
mapfile - Read lines from standard input into an indexed array variable.
The set and declare builtins display array values in a way that allows them to be reused as input.
Windows equivalent commands: Arrays in PowerShell.

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