ip

Show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels.

Syntax
      ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

         OBJECT := { link | addr | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh | tunnel | maddr | mroute | monitor }

         OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -s[tatistics] | -r[esolve] | -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | ipx | dnet | link } | -o[neline] }

      ip link set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } |
         promisc { on | off } | allmulticast { on | off } |
            dynamic { on | off } | multicast { on | off } |
               txqueuelen PACKETS | name NEWNAME |
                  address LLADDR | broadcast LLADDR | mtu MTU | netns PID | 
                     alias NAME | vf NUM [ mac LLADDR ] [ vlan VLANID [ qos VLAN-QOS ] ] [ rate TXRATE ] }

      ip link show [ DEVICE ]
            dev NAME (default)  - NAME specifies the network device to show.
                                  If this argument is omitted all devices are listed.
            up                  - Only display running interfaces, e.g. $ ip link ls up 

      ip address { add | del } IFADDR dev STRING

      ip address { show | flush } [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX ] [ FLAG-LIST ] [ label PATTERN ]

         IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ] [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

         SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

         FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

         FLAG := [ permanent | dynamic | secondary | primary | tentative | deprecated ]

      ip addrlabel { add | del } prefix PREFIX [ dev DEV ] [ label NUMBER ]

      ip addrlabel { list | flush }

      ip route { list | flush } SELECTOR

      ip route get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos TOS ]

      ip route { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

         SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ exact PREFIX ] [ table TABLE_ID ]
                        [ proto RTPROTO ] [ type TYPE ] [ scope SCOPE ]

         ROUTE := NODE_SPEC [ INFO_SPEC ]

         NODE_SPEC := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [ proto RTPROTO ] [ scope SCOPE ] [ metric METRIC ]

         INFO_SPEC := NH OPTIONS FLAGS [ nexthop NH ] ...

         NH := [ via ADDRESS ] [ dev STRING ] [ weight NUMBER ] NHFLAGS

         OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtu NUMBER ] [ advmss NUMBER ] [ rtt TIME ] [ rttvar TIME ]
                       [ window NUMBER ] [ cwnd NUMBER ] [ initcwnd NUMBER ] [ ssthresh REALM ]
                          [ realms REALM ] [ rto_min TIME ] [ initrwnd NUMBER ]

         TYPE := [ unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | throw | unreachable | prohibit | blackhole | nat ]

         TABLE_ID := [ local| main | default | all | NUMBER ]

         SCOPE := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

         FLAGS := [ equalize ]

         NHFLAGS := [ onlink | pervasive ]

         RTPROTO := [ kernel | boot | static | NUMBER ]

      ip rule [ list | add | del | flush ] SELECTOR ACTION

         SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark FWMARK[/MASK] ] [ dev STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]

         ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ] [ prohibit | reject | unreachable ] [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

         TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]

      ip neighbour { add | del | change | replace } { ADDR [ lladdr LLADDR ]
                  [ nud { permanent | noarp | stale | reachable } ] | proxy ADDR } [ dev DEV ]

      ip neighbour { show | flush } [ to PREFIX ] [ dev DEV ] [ nud STATE ]

      ip tunnel { add | change | del | show | prl } [ NAME ] [ mode MODE ] [ remote ADDR ]
         [ local ADDR ] [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] ] [ encaplimit ELIM ] [ ttl TTL ]
            [ tos TOS ] [ flowlabel FLOWLABEL ] [ prl-default ADDR ] [ prl-nodefault ADDR ] [ prl-delete ADDR ]
               [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]

         MODE := { ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6ip6 | ipip6 | any }

         ADDR := { IP_ADDRESS | any }

         TOS := { NUMBER | inherit }

         ELIM := { none | 0..255 }

         TTL := { 1..255 | inherit }

         KEY := { DOTTED_QUAD | NUMBER }

         TIME := NUMBER[s|ms|us|ns|j]

      ip maddr [ add | del ] MULTIADDR dev STRING

      ip maddr show [ dev STRING ]

      ip mroute show [ PREFIX ] [ from PREFIX ] [ iif DEVICE ]

      ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]

      ip xfrm XFRM_OBJECT { COMMAND }

         XFRM_OBJECT := { state | policy | monitor }

      ip xfrm state { add | update } ID [ XFRM_OPT ] [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ seq SEQ ] [ replay-window SIZE ]
         [ flag FLAG-LIST ] [ encap ENCAP ] [ sel SELECTOR ] [ LIMIT-LIST ]

      ip xfrm state allocspi ID [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ seq SEQ ] [ min SPI max SPI ]

      ip xfrm state { delete | get } ID

      ip xfrm state { deleteall | list } [ ID ] [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ flag FLAG_LIST ]

      ip xfrm state flush [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]

      ip xfrm state count

         ID := [ src ADDR ] [ dst ADDR ] [ proto XFRM_PROTO ] [ spi SPI ]

         XFRM_PROTO := [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

         MODE := [ transport | tunnel | ro | beet ] (default=transport)

         FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

         FLAG := [ noecn | decap-dscp | wildrecv ]

         ENCAP := ENCAP-TYPE SPORT DPORT OADDR

         ENCAP-TYPE := espinudp | espinudp-nonike

         ALGO-LIST := [ ALGO-LIST ] | [ ALGO ]

         ALGO := ALGO_TYPE ALGO_NAME ALGO_KEY

         ALGO_TYPE := [ enc | auth | comp ]

         SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN] [ UPSPEC ] [ dev DEV ]

         UPSPEC := proto PROTO [[ sport PORT ] [ dport PORT ] | [ type NUMBER ] [ code NUMBER ]]

         LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] | [ limit LIMIT ]

         LIMIT := [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ] |
                     [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] | [ [packet-soft|packet-hard] COUNT ]

      ip xfrm policy { add | update } dir DIR SELECTOR [ index INDEX ]
                        [ ptype PTYPE ] [ action ACTION ] [ priority PRIORITY ]
                           [ LIMIT-LIST ] [ TMPL-LIST ]

      ip xfrm policy { delete | get } dir DIR [ SELECTOR | index INDEX ] [ ptype PTYPE ]

      ip xfrm policy { deleteall | list } [ dir DIR ] [ SELECTOR ] [ index INDEX ]
                        [ action ACTION ] [ priority PRIORITY ]

      ip xfrm policy flush [ ptype PTYPE ]

      ip xfrm count

         PTYPE := [ main | sub ] (default=main)

         DIR := [ in | out | fwd ]

         SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN] [ UPSPEC ] [ dev DEV ]

         UPSPEC := proto PROTO [ [ sport PORT ] [ dport PORT ] |
                      [ type NUMBER ] [ code NUMBER ] ]

         ACTION := [ allow | block ] (default=allow)

         LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] | [ limit LIMIT ]

         LIMIT := [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ] |
                     [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] | [packet-soft|packet-hard] NUMBER ]

         TMPL-LIST := [ TMPL-LIST ] | [ tmpl TMPL ]

         TMPL := ID [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ level LEVEL ]

         ID := [ src ADDR ] [ dst ADDR ] [ proto XFRM_PROTO ] [ spi SPI ]

         XFRM_PROTO := [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

         MODE := [ transport | tunnel | beet ] (default=transport)

         LEVEL := [ required | use ] (default=required)

      ip xfrm monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ] 

OPTIONS

   -f, -family
       followed by protocol family identifier: inet, inet6 or link ,enforce the protocol family to use.
       If the option is not present, the protocol family is guessed from other arguments.
       If the rest of the command line does not give enough information to guess the family, ip falls
       back to the default one, usually inet or any. link is a special family identifier meaning that
       no networking protocol is involved. 

   -4  shortcut for -family inet. (IPv4)

   -6  shortcut for -family inet6. (IPv6)

   -0  shortcut for -family link.
   -o, -oneline
       output each record on a single line, replacing line feeds with the '\' character.
       This is convenient when you want to count records with wc(1) or to grep(1) the output. 

   -r, -resolve
    use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead of host addresses. 

   -s, -stats, -statistics
       output more information. If the option appears twice or more, the amount of information increases.
       As a rule, the information is statistics or some time values.

   -V, -Version
       print the version of the ip utility and exit. 

OBJECTS with abbreviations

   link      l           Network device.
   address   a or addr   Protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device. 
   addrlabel addrl       Label configuration for protocol address selection. 
   neighbour n or neigh  ARP or NDISC cache entry. 
   route     r           Routing table entry.
   rule      ru          Rule in routing policy database.
   maddress  m or maddr  Multicast address. 
   mroute    mr          Multicast routing cache entry.
   tunnel    t           tunnel over IP.
   xfrm      x           framework for IPsec protocol.

   The names of all objects may be written in full or abbreviated form.

COMMAND

Specifies the action to perform on the object.
The set of possible actions depends on the object type.
As a rule, it is possible to add, delete and show (or list ) objects, but some objects do not allow all of these operations or have some additional commands.

The help command is available for all objects.
It prints out a list of available commands and argument syntax conventions. e.g. ip a help

If no command is given, some default command is assumed.
Usually it is list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed, help.

Examples:

List and show all ip address associated on on all network interfaces:
$ ip addr

Prevent accidental deletions by making rm interactive:
$ alias rm='rm -i'

“There are many reasons why novelists write, but they all have one thing in common - a need to create an alternative world” ~ John Fowles

Related:

ss - Socket Statistics

Equivalent Windows command: ROUTE - Manipulate network routing tables


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